Motor Cortex Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Motor Cortex > Flashcards

Flashcards in Motor Cortex Deck (46):
1

What area makes up M1?

4

2

What is the difference between M1-4p, and M1-4a?

M1-4a relies on sensory feedback

3

Which M1 area is responsible for initiation of movements/

M1-4p

4

What M1 area can be activated by imagining movements or listening to speech?

M1-4a

5

What results from lesions to M1?

Contralateral UMNL
- Weakness

6

What is the organization of M1?

- Arranged in columns related to movement and muscles acting on single joints

7

What 2 factors are determined by M1?

Force (frequency of firing)
Duration

8

How is direction determined by M1?

Algebriac summation of all possible trajectories being generated by the cortex

9

How are the sensory and motor humunculi different?

Motor has smaller lips

10

What tract predominantly originates from M1?

Corticospinal

11

What gyrus is M1 found on?

Precentral

12

From what lobe does the pre-motor area receive most of its afferents?

The parietal lobe

13

What triggers movements in the pre-motor area?

External sensory information

14

What does the PMA project to?

- Motor cortex
- Brainstem via ventral medial system

15

What are the 2 portions of the PMA?

Lateral dorsal
Lateral ventral

16

Is the lateral dorsal PMA related to reaching or grasping? The lateral ventral?

Lateral dorsal: Reaching
Lateral ventral: Grasping

17

What is meant by the associative learning that occurs in the lateral dorsal PMA?

- Associate sensory events with a motor output

18

What occurs with a lesion to the lateral dorsal PMA?

Difficulty with associative learning

19

What area of M1 is the lateral ventral PMA connected with?

The hand area

20

What are mirror neurons? Where are they found?

- Found in lateral ventral area of PMA
- Activate during observation of action

21

What type of learning occurs in the lateral ventral PMA?

- Higher order, abstract representations of goal oriented actions/ motor learning

22

What will occur with a lesion to the lateral ventral PMA?

- Can't grasp as well

23

What is the function of the supplementary motor area (M2)?

- Plans complex movements
- Coordinates movements between both hands
- Integrates learned sequences from memory

24

Are motor commands initiated autonomously or by sensory input in M2?

Autonomously

25

What effects will a lesion to M2 have?

- Can't orient digits and hands when reaching
- Can't use hands together
- Can't make postural adjustments during movement

26

What is the function of the pre-supplementary motor area?

- Semantic processing

27

What structures does the pre-supplementary motor area connect to?

- Caudate
- Frontal cortex

28

How do the basal ganglia, cerebellum, cerebrum, and spinal cord connect in the motor circuit?

- Basal ganglia provides reward system
- Cerebellum removes errors
- Cerebrum initiates movements
- Cerebellum gets a copy
- Command goes to spinal cord

29

What are the 6 executive functions of the prefrontal cortex?

- Planning ahead
- Monitoring
- Sustained attention
- Goal directed behavior
- Working memory
- Problem solving

30

What areas form the "What" pathway of the prefrontal cortex?

44, 45, 47, 12

31

What areas for the "Where/ How" pathway of the prefrontal cortex?

8, 9, 4, 6

32

Is the "What" pathway of the prefrontal cortex ventral or dosal? The "where" pathway?

What: Dorsal
Where: Ventral

33

What 3 functions are performed by the prefrontal lateral dorsal complex?

- Spatial relationships between stimuli
- Working memory
- Planning ahead

34

What are the functions of the prefrontal lateral ventral cortex?

- Characterizes stimuli in envrionment
- Selects/ retrieves semantic/ linguistic knowledge
- Inhibits rumination over problems to help with attention

35

What does the left side of the prefrontal lateral ventral complex do?

Control attention through distractions

36

What does the right side of the prefrontal lateral ventral complex do?

Vigilance

37

What chemical activates the prefrontal lateral ventral cortex?

Dopamine

38

What lobe does the prefrontal lateral ventral cortex work with?

Temporal

39

What is the function of the oribitofrontal cortex?

Regulates emotions

40

What are inputs to the OFC? What system generates these inputs?

- Fear
- Hunger
- Thrist
- Love
- Envy
- Generated by limbic system

41

What are outputs of the OFC?

- Behavior
- Physiological response

42

What are symptoms associated with lesions to the OFC?

- Inappropriate behavior/ emotions
- Impulsive
- Unprovoked emotions
- Lack of initiative
- Unable to plan or correct behaviors
- Inability to read emotions or non-verbals

43

What 2 senses related to the reward system stimulate the OFC?

- Smell
- Taste

44

What structures send signals to the OFC?

- Sensory systems
- Postcentral gyrus
- Limbic system

45

What effect to pain and pleasure have on the OFC?

Activation

46

What is the function of the cingulate gyrus?

- Emotion formation and processing
- Learning
- Memory
- Links response to pain
- Regulates aggression