Flashcards in Developmental Deck (153)
Infancy> neonatal antecedents of empathy
Toddlers> representation of self
Early childhood > Development of TOM
Adolescence > Social Intelligence
Later Life > Empathy and Ageing
Sagi and Hoffman (1976)
2 day old neonates distinguish between natural cry and synthetic cry
Field et al (1982)
infants imitate, discriminate and display primary emotions
Imitation is a precursor for brain's capacity for empathy
Rochat stage 1?
automatically triggered and biologically determined. Sex/ Individual differences in social perception and responsivity also evident within the first 24 hours
2 months onwards (empathy and social)?
social smiling, complex dialogical engagement, face to face exchanges with caretakers
Begin to co-construct shared experiences via imitation and reciprocal games
Frith and Frith (2003)?
Smile more towards people than objects, and react reflexively to movement of gaze
Rochat Stage 3?
Approx 6-9 months
Attempt to share their attention with others,
Moves beyond face-to-face exchanges
Carpenter et al (1998)?
Developing so-called "secondary intersubjectivity"
Rochat Stage 4?
Approx 14 months onwards
Identify as unique, mirror recognition
developed projective empathy
Agnetta and Rochat, 2004?
Start discriminating Imitators
Self objectification (distinction between self and others) is the only essential precondition of empathy
Central milestone to empathy?
15-18 months - toddlers show 3 behaviours indicative of the emergence of the consciousness and the meta representation of the self
-Distress response comforting behaviour
Rochat Stage 5?
24 months onwards
Systematic comparisons - categorisation and conceptualisation of the self in relation to others
Shame, guilt, pride etc
Rochat stage 6?
4-6 years - fully developed awareness of mental states etc - ToM and false belief recognition - capable of adopting a theoretical stance towards others
Egeland and Sroufe (1981)
Cognitive delay during infancy, Attachment problems and social withdrawal
As children, more islated and withdrawn, lower self esteem. more negative and less positive affect
Pollack et al (2000)
Problems in emotion regulation and discrimination
Manly et al (2001)
maternal abuse - children exhibit behavioural and attachment problems
Teicher et al (2000)
maternal abuse - Increased incidence of psychiatric disorders
Widome and Maxfield (2001)
maternal abuse - juvenile delinquency and adult criminal behaviour
Developmental disorders that contain a subgroup with empathy disorder?
ASD's, ADHD, DCD, PDD-NOS, Tourettes, OCD & OCPD, BPD, NPD etc, ED's, Selective Mutism, Childhood SZ, Bipolar, Conduct disorders.
ADHD with and without DCD? (empathy)
57% of ADHD with DCD had 'psychotic disorders' (compared to 1.2% in gen.pop.)
Eating disorders and Empathy?
A sub group of individuals suffering with anorexia nervosa also have major problems with empathy
Anorexia and Empathy?
1 in 6 may have an ASD, another 1 in 6 may have clinically significant empathy problems
Genetic and biological basis for psychopathy?
recent evidence for a degeneration of white matter connectivity in the Uncinate Fasciculus (UF) that connects the amygdala and the Orbitofrontal cortex
(Craig et al, 2009)
Developed a theory of moral development, piggybacking on piaget
Heinz dilemma ?
Man's wife is sick, one drug can save her. costs £200 to produce, druggist sells for £2000. Man offers £1000, druggist says no, so man steps in and steals drug
Stage 1 and Heinz?
Obedience - heinz should not steal the medicine because its against the law and he will go to prison. OR heinz should steal it because its only worth £200 and he offered over that, and he's not stealing anything else