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Flashcards in Developmental Deck (153)
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1

Rochat (2002)?

Infancy> neonatal antecedents of empathy
Toddlers> representation of self
Early childhood > Development of TOM
Adolescence > Social Intelligence
Later Life > Empathy and Ageing

2

Sagi and Hoffman (1976)

2 day old neonates distinguish between natural cry and synthetic cry

3

Field et al (1982)

infants imitate, discriminate and display primary emotions

4

Brothers (1989)

Imitation is a precursor for brain's capacity for empathy

5

Rochat stage 1?

automatically triggered and biologically determined. Sex/ Individual differences in social perception and responsivity also evident within the first 24 hours

6

2 months onwards (empathy and social)?

social smiling, complex dialogical engagement, face to face exchanges with caretakers

7

Rochat (1999)?

Begin to co-construct shared experiences via imitation and reciprocal games

8

Frith and Frith (2003)?

Smile more towards people than objects, and react reflexively to movement of gaze

9

Rochat Stage 3?

Approx 6-9 months
Attempt to share their attention with others,
Moves beyond face-to-face exchanges

10

Carpenter et al (1998)?

Developing so-called "secondary intersubjectivity"

11

Rochat Stage 4?

Approx 14 months onwards
Identify as unique, mirror recognition
developed projective empathy

12

Agnetta and Rochat, 2004?

Start discriminating Imitators

13

Bischof-Kohler (1994)?

Self objectification (distinction between self and others) is the only essential precondition of empathy

14

Central milestone to empathy?

15-18 months - toddlers show 3 behaviours indicative of the emergence of the consciousness and the meta representation of the self
-Mirror recognition
-Personal Pronouns
-Distress response comforting behaviour

15

Rochat Stage 5?

24 months onwards
Self-conscious emotions
Systematic comparisons - categorisation and conceptualisation of the self in relation to others
Embarrassment emerges
Shame, guilt, pride etc

16

Rochat stage 6?

4-6 years - fully developed awareness of mental states etc - ToM and false belief recognition - capable of adopting a theoretical stance towards others

17

Egeland and Sroufe (1981)

Cognitive delay during infancy, Attachment problems and social withdrawal
As children, more islated and withdrawn, lower self esteem. more negative and less positive affect

18

Pollack et al (2000)

Problems in emotion regulation and discrimination

19

Manly et al (2001)

maternal abuse - children exhibit behavioural and attachment problems

20

Teicher et al (2000)

maternal abuse - Increased incidence of psychiatric disorders

21

Widome and Maxfield (2001)

maternal abuse - juvenile delinquency and adult criminal behaviour

22

Developmental disorders that contain a subgroup with empathy disorder?

ASD's, ADHD, DCD, PDD-NOS, Tourettes, OCD & OCPD, BPD, NPD etc, ED's, Selective Mutism, Childhood SZ, Bipolar, Conduct disorders.

23

ADHD with and without DCD? (empathy)

57% of ADHD with DCD had 'psychotic disorders' (compared to 1.2% in gen.pop.)

24

Eating disorders and Empathy?

A sub group of individuals suffering with anorexia nervosa also have major problems with empathy

25

Anorexia and Empathy?

1 in 6 may have an ASD, another 1 in 6 may have clinically significant empathy problems

26

Genetic and biological basis for psychopathy?

recent evidence for a degeneration of white matter connectivity in the Uncinate Fasciculus (UF) that connects the amygdala and the Orbitofrontal cortex
(Craig et al, 2009)

27

Kohlberg?

Developed a theory of moral development, piggybacking on piaget

28

Heinz dilemma ?

Man's wife is sick, one drug can save her. costs £200 to produce, druggist sells for £2000. Man offers £1000, druggist says no, so man steps in and steals drug

29

Stage 1 and Heinz?

Obedience - heinz should not steal the medicine because its against the law and he will go to prison. OR heinz should steal it because its only worth £200 and he offered over that, and he's not stealing anything else

30

Stage 2 and Heinz?

Self interest - Heinz should steal the medicine becaise he will be much happier if he saves his wife even if he ends up in prison. OR he shouldn't because prison is awful and he doesn't want to be there