Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (49)
How being social affects our behaviour
Conformity - Asch
Obedience - Milgram
Deindividualtion - Zajonc
Social roles - Zimbardo
Social facilitation and inhibition?
Self fulfilling prophecies - Pygmalion effect
Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968)
Landsberger, 1958 - individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.
model of social thinking - heider 1958. rational and systematic based on cause and effect
Fiske and Taylor (1991)?
Thinking fast and slow?
Kahneman (2011) - two systems of thinking
The motivated tactician - flexible social thinkers
Macrae, Hewstone and Griffifths, 1993?
Conditions promoting heuristic use - time constraints, cognitive overload, lack of information
extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people's minds
schemata activated easily for an individual across time and situations
anchoring and adjustment - children and sweets in a jar
Yik et al (2019)
anchoring and adjustment for feelings - more when under time constraints
asked to make several decisions at once, will diversify options
Escalation of commitment
similar to cost sunk fallacy, justify increased investment in terms of prior investment
availibility heuristic explains the perserverence of refuted beliefs
Why do we categorise?
Fiske and Taylor 91991) saves us time and cognitive processing.
Hogg (2000, 2002) reduces uncertainty and provides prescriptive norms
Barsalou (1991) most representative member of a category, categorisation of less typical members may be slower or more errorful
Payne et al (2005)
rapidly showed pictures to students, participants more likely to rapidly misidentify a tool as a gun when preceded by a black face
Affect as information theory?
affect valence - affective reactions provide a source of information about value or valence, positive or negative
Affect arousal - implicit or explicit responses - information on relevance, urgency or importance
Forgas and Fielder (1996)
negative moods lead to more bottom up thinking
positive moods lead to more top down thinking
How does heider (1958) provide the basis for attribution theory?
people are motivated by the need to forma coherent view of the world, and the need to gain control over the environment
Locus of causality
internal attribution - locates cause as internal to the person - dispositional
external attribution - locates cause to the situation
Fincham and O'Leary (1983)
spousal attribution, happy and unhappy marriages
stability and controllability act as additional dimensions along which attribution occurs
Correspondant inference theory?
Jones and davis, 1965 - people try to infer that the actions of an actor correspond to a stable charactersitic - e.g. making a daredevil
Covariation model - 1967 - consensus information, consistency information, generalisation (distinctiveness)
Chen, yates and McGinniews, 1988
kelleys cube generally supported but not all three types of information created equally