Flashcards in Individual Differences Deck (159)
2010 equality act
9 protected characteristics - Race, Age, gender reassignment, Sex, Religion, Maternity/ Pregnancy, Disability, marriage etc, Sexual orientation
typically thin, introverted, inhibited, private
carry weight around the middle, fun-loving, social, affectionate
athletic, adventurous, assertive, risk taker
Holtzan inkblot test
addresses issues in rorschach test, specific criteria including reatcion time, rejection, place, space, and form of ink blots
trait approach, cardinal traits, central traits, secondary traits
Searching for core traits (Allport)
more than 4,000 words in the english language describing different personality traits
reduced 4,000 words from allport to 171, used factor analysis to reduce the list to just 16 traits. Sixteen personality factor questionnaire
Eysenck's factor analysis
largely based off work with soldiers in maudsley psychiatric hospital, belief of an inherited nervous system. Extraversion v Introversion, Neuroticism v Stability. Later normality v Psychoticism
The big 5?
OCEAN - Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Parts of the MMPI?
Principle subscales, Supplementary scales, validity scales.
Principle subscales of MMPI?
10 major personality dimensions tested over 338 questions
Supplementary subscales of MMPI?
12 subscales assessing other aspects of personality
Validity scales MMPI
4 scales. Cannot say scale, Lie Scale, Infrequency scale, Correction scale
Temperament and Character inventory (TCI)
Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence,
Self directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence
What is intelligence? (Gottfredson, 1997)
ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas etc
Hereditary nature of intelligence
first intelligence test
'g' general intelligence
Cattell's multi factor theory of intelligence?
crystallised intelligence - factual knowlege, Fluid intelligence - ability to solve novel problems
Gardner - theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI)
Linguistic, spatial, logic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, bodily-kineasthetic etc
Key personality variables affecting reactions to social events
Adorno et al (1950)
F-scale and authoritarian personality - excessive conformity. intolerance of others, rigid stereotyped thought patterns
found that monozygotic (identical) twins were significantly more alike on the Introvert – Extrovert (E) and Psychoticism (P) dimensions than dizygotic (non-identical) twins
Sidanius and Pratto (1999)
Aggregated individual discrimination, unnoticed acts such as anti lgbtq+ comments, not promoting a black person, etc
test anxiety scale, 27 items t/f scale, higher score = higher anxiety
Mandler and Sarason (1952)?
power of feedback. improved low TA scores, reduced high TA scores