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Flashcards in DFO Set Three Deck (21)
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1

What are the three components in the body that work to control homeostasis and how do they work together to maintain homeostasis?

Receptor - Receives sensory input, sends this information to the integration centre
Integration/control centre - Integrates and sorts sensory information, sends appropriate message to effector
Effector - Carries out appropriate response to sensory input, e.g turning music down if it's too loud

2

What is produced in the ventricles and surrounds and cushions the brain?

Cerebrospinal fluid

3

Describe how an action potential is generated, where it is initiated, where it is conducted, and where it terminates along a neuron

Dendrites are stimulated, the action potential is generated in the cell membrane, then initiated in the axon hillock. The AP is conducted along the axon and terminates in the terminal

4

Name the components that make up a synapse

Pre-synaptic terminal, synaptic cleft, post-synaptic terminal

5

Identify and briefly describe the two neurotransmitter hypotheses for depression/mood disorders

Monoamine hypothesis: Depression may result from a deficit in seratonin and norepinephrine
Stress symptom hypothesis: Sustained high levels of cortisol lead to natural receptors in hippocampus to break down, inhibiting negative feedback, meaning the stress response continues, causing damage.

6

Excessive stimulation in of the secondary sensory neuron in the pain pathway may lead to ______, a possible cause of chronic pain

Hyperalgesia/hypersensitisation of the CNS

7

Pain has specialised sensory receptors in body tissues for detecting stimuli which threaten tissue damage. These are known as ___

Nociceptors

8

Innervates glands, causing them to secrete

Efferent

9

Found completely in the brain and spinal cord

Interneuron

10

Innervates muscles, causing contractions

Efferent

11

Carries impulses towards spinal cord and brain

Afferent

12

Connects sensory and motor neurons

Interneuron

13

Carries sensory impulses only

Afferent

14

Identify three symptoms of fibromyalgia

Insomnia
Headache
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cognitive and memory problems
Numbness and tingling of hands and feet

15

Under each of the following headings, identify the way in which these areas can be affected by chronic pain: Work, Self-care, Leisure

Work: Cognitive problems, lack of concentration
Self-care: Inability to complete ADL's due to pain, difficulty sleeping due to pain
Leisure: Not experiencing joy or satisfaction

16

Fibromyalgia predominantly affects men

False

17

Phantom pain is an example of musculoskeletal pain

False

18

Noxious stimuli trigger _____ to send action potentials along _______ into the spinal cord. These then synapse with _______ which ______ and ascend the spinal cord within the _____. In the _______ they synapse with _______ which deliver the information to the _______ and the _____, resulting in the sensation of pain and the emotional response to it.

Nocioceptors
Primary sensory neuron
Secondary sensory neuron
Decussate
Spinothalamic tract
Thalamus
Tertiary sensory neuron
Primary somatosensory neuron
Limbic system

19

Describe four types of sensory receptors and what stimulates them

Thermoreceptors - temperature
Mechanoreceptors - touch and pressure
Chemoreceptors - changes in chemical concentrations (taste and smell)
Nocicpetors - danger/pain

20

You place your whole hand on a hot stove element. Hundreds of thermoreceptor and nociceptor primary afferent neurons are triggered to fire AP's. Your primary somatosensory cortex receives input from ~10-20 tertiary afferent neurons. This would be an example of which type of neuron network?

Convergent

21

Describe and give a functional example of neural adaptation

Ability of sensory neuron to change frequency of AP firing in the process of constant stimulus. For example, sitting in a classroom and drowning out the buzzing of the projector - this sound isn't a threat so it doesn't require constant response.