Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (22):
How does type 2 diabetes often present?
What are the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes?
Fasting plasma glucose > 7.0mmol/l
Random plasma glucose >11.1mmol/l
-One abnormally result diagnostic for symptomatic individuals and two values needed in asymptomatic people.
What diet should be advised for type 2 diabetes?
Low in sugar
High in starchy carbohydrate
High in fibre
Low in fat
What else should be advised with a good diet?
What type of drug is metformin?
What is the first-line pharmacological treatment for type 2 diabetes?
How does metformin work?
Reduces rate of gluconeogenesis
Increases insulin sensitivity
Why is metformin particularly useful in treating type 2 diabetes in overweight people?
Does not induce hypoglycaemia and so does not predispose to weight gain
What are the major side effects of metformin?
Name some sulphonylureas.
How do sulphonylureas work?
Act on beta-cells to promote insulin secretion
What are the side effects of sulphonylureas?
Which sulphonylurea is used in the elderly and why?
Has a short half-life
What type of drug is pioglitazone?
Thiazolidinediones (or glitazones)
How does pioglitazone work?
Potentiates effect of endogenous and injected insulin
What are the side effects of glitazones?
Increased risk of heart failure
Name the two meglitinides.
How do meglitinides work?
Are insulin secretagogues
How to meglitinides act?
Act via closure of the K+-ATP channel in beta-cells
Does IV or oral glucose initiate a greater insulin response? And why?
Due to the incretin effect
What is the incretin effect?
Release of two peptide hormones (GLP-1 and GIP) from L cells in the intestine