Neurology Flashcards Preview

Medicine > Neurology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurology Deck (123):
1

What are the two types of neurotransmitter receptors?

Metabotropic
Ionotropic

2

What type of receptor are the majority of neurotransmitter receptors?

Metabotropic

3

Name four neurotransmitters that act generally.

Glutamate
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)
Glycine
Acetylcholine

4

Where is glutamate the main excitatory neurotransmitter?

In the CNS

5

Name the 3 ionotropic receptors for glutamate and state what they are permeable to.

AMPA - sodium
NMDA - calcium and sodium
Kainate - sodium and calcium

6

What does prolonged activation of glutamate receptors result in?

Hyperexcitability, leading to seizures and excitotoxicity

7

Give 2 examples of what blocks glutamate receptors and what does this cause?

Ketamine and alcohol
Results in sedation

8

Where in the body in GABA the main inhibitory neurotransmitter?

In the CNS

9

What are the two types of GABA receptor?

GABA A - ionotropic receptor that conducts Cl
GABA B - metabotropic receptor

10

What does activation of GABA A result in?

Sedation

11

Name 2 substances that activate GABA A receptors.

Alcohol and benzodiazapines, such as lorazepam

12

What does activation of GABA B receptors result in at the synapse?

Presynaptic inhibition of GABA release

13

What is the effect of positive allosteric modulators on GABA?

Potentiates the effect of GABA on GABA A receptors

14

What do GABA analogues do and what are the clinical signs?

Increase the amount of GABA available
Have a relaxing, anti-anxiety and anti-convulsive effect

15

Why are glia important for glutamate and GABA?

Important for the synthesis of them and also "mop up" excess neurotransmitter

16

What type of of neurotransmitter is glycine: inhibitory or excitatory?

Inhibitory

17

What type of receptors does glycine act on?

Ionotropic receptors that conduct chloride ions

18

What are glycine receptors blocked by?

Strychnine

19

Where is glycine mainly active?

Brainstem and spinal cord

20

Where in the brain is the principal source of serotonin?

Raphe nuclei

21

How many Raphe nuclei are there, and where are they found?

7-8
Located near the midline of the brainstem and around the reticular foramen

22

What is serotonin implicated in?

Depression
Appetite control
Nausea
Sleep
Sexual arousal
Analgesia

23

What type of receptors are serotonin receptors?

All are metabotropic G-protein coupled receptors, except 5-HT 3 which is ionotropic

24

How is serotinergic action primarily terminated?

By reuptake of serotonin, which is down through SERT (a specific monoamine transporter for serotonin) on the presynaptic neuron

25

What is special about drug targets for serotonin?

All 5 elements in the life of a neurotransmitter are drug targets for serotonin

26

Name a drug type that can block transporters of serotonin.

SSRIs

27

What drug can activate receptor 5-HT 1B and what is this drug used to treat?

Sumatriptan
Treats migraines

28

Name a type of drug that activates 5-HT 2A receptors.

Hallucinogenic drugs

29

Name a type of drug that blocks 5-HT 2A receptors.

Atypical antipsychotics

30

Name a drug that blocks 5-HT 3 receptors and what is it used to treat?

Odansetron
An anti-emetic

31

Where does serotonin exist outside the nervous system?

In vast stores in enterochromaffin cells in the lining of the GI tract

32

What parts of the brain make acetylcholine and where do they project to?

Basal forebrain- project to cortex and hippocampus
Brainstem tegmentum - project to thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum

33

Which subdivision of the nervous system is acetylcholine the main neurotransmitter for?

Autonomic nervous system

34

What are the receptors for acetylcholine and what type of receptors are they?

Nicotinic - ionotropic
Muscarinic - metabotropic

35

Which part of the brain synthesises dopamine?

Ventral midbrain - substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area

36

What is the substantial nigra thought to be involved in?

Movement control

37

What is the ventral segmental area involved in?

Reward
Novelty
Motivation

38

In what disorders is there thought to be something wrong with the dopaminergic system?

Schizophrenia
Drug addiction
Tourettes
Parkinsons disease

39

What are the receptors of the dopaminergic system and what type are they?

D1 - excitatory metabotropic
D2 - inhibitory metabotropic

40

What type of drugs block dopamine receptors and name 2.

Antipsychotic medications - haloperidol and quetiapine

41

What part of the brain produces noradrenaline?

Locus coeruleus

42

What type of receptor are adrenergic receptors?

Metabotropic

43

What part of the brain produces histamine and where does it project to?

Hypothalamus -projects throughout brain

44

What are the 3 major types of endogenous opioid peptides?

Endorphins
Enkephalins
Dynorphins

45

What are endorphins similar to and what are their effects?

Like morphine
Have endogenous analgesic effect

46

Where in the brain are endogenous opioids synthesised, and what as?

By hypothalamus as propeptides

47

Once synthesised, where are endogenous opioids projected to?

Periaqueductal grey
Brainstem

48

What and where is the periaqueductal grey?

Grey matter located around the cerebral aqueduct within the tegmentum of the midbrain

49

What is the main function of endogenous opioids?

Neuromodulators that regulate the release and activity of other neurotransmitters

50

What does damage to CN VIII result in?

Unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo

51

What is the function of V1?

Sensation from the cornea, skin of forehead, scalp, eyelids, nose and mucosa of nasal cavity

52

What does damage to CN XI cause?

Paralysis of sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle causing drooping of shoulder

53

What is CN IV called?

Trochlear nerve

54

How does cranial nerve I exit the cranium?

Through the cribiform plate

55

What is the pons involved in?

Sleep
Respiration
Swallowing
Posture
Taste

56

What is CN XI and what is its function?

Spinal accessory nerve - motor innervation to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle

57

Through which space and then which sinus does CN IV run on its way to the orbit?

Through the subarachnoid space and then through the cavernous sinus

58

What is CN VIII?

Vestibulocochlear nerve

59

What is the most ventral part of the midbrain?

The paired cerebral peduncles

60

What does damage to CN XII result in?

Protruded tongue deviates towards affected side
Moderate dysarthria
Disturbance of articulation

61

How does CN XII leave the skull?

Through the hypoglossal canal

62

What does damage to CN IX cause?

Loss of taste over posterior third of tongue
Loss of sensation over affected side of palate
Loss of gag reflex on affected side

63

What 4 nerves exit the skull through the superior orbital fissure?

Oculomotor nerve
Trochlear nerve
Ophthalmic nerve (trigeminal nerve 1)
Abducens nerve

64

In the brainstem, what does the pons link?

The thalamus to the medulla oblongata

65

What is CN IX?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

66

Where does CN VIII originate?

The vestibular nerve in the vestibular ganglion in the brain stem and the cochlear nerve in the spiral ganglion in the brainstem

67

Where is CN XI formed?

From neurone at the top of the spinal cord

68

Where does CN IX originate in the brainstem?

Medulla oblongata

69

What is CN X?

Vagus nerve

70

What are the motor functions of CN IX?

Somatic - innervation to stylopharyngeus muscle
Visceral - parasympathetic innervation to parotid gland

71

What is the function of CN IV?

Motor innervation to direct gaze of eye inferomedially

72

Which cranial nerves do not come off the brainstem?

CN I (olfactory) and CN II (optic)

73

What is the red nucleus?

A motor nucleus that sends a descending tract to lower motor neurone

74

Where are the inferior and superior colliculus found?

Tectum of the midbrain

75

In what disease is the substantial nigra thought to be involved in the pathology?

Parkinson's disease

76

What is the function of CN VIII?

Vestibular nerve - vestibular sensation from semicircular ducts, urticle and saccular relating to position and movement of head
Cochlear nerve - hearing from the cochlear

77

What is the superior colliculus involved in?

Sense of vision

78

How does the cerebellum play an important role in motor control?

It contributes to coordination, precision and accurate timing

79

What would damage to CN I lead to?

Loss of smell

80

What is the special sensory function of CN IX?

Taste from the posterior third of the tongue

81

What is CN II and what is its function?

Optic nerve - vision

82

What is CN V and what are its divisions?

Trigeminal nerve - Ophthalmic nerve, Maxillary nerve and Mandibular nerve

83

Where do the sensory and parasympathetic parts of CN VII originate from?

Nervus intermedius

84

What is the inferior colliculus involved in?

Sense of hearing

85

What does damage to CN IV cause?

Inability to rotate an adducted eye inferiorly

86

What 3 nerves exit the skull through the jugular foramen?

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Vagus nerve (CN X)
Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)

87

What does damage to CN III result in?

Dilated pupils
Ptosis
Eye rotates inferiorly and laterally

88

What is the medulla oblongata continuous with?

Spinal cord

89

What is contained in the brain stem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata

90

What is the visceral motor function of CN VII?

Supplies lacrimal glands and the sublingual and submandibular salivary glands

91

Where does CN VI leave the brainstem?

At the junction of the pons and the medulla

92

Along which lateral wall does CN V1 pass along?

Cavernous sinus

93

What is the chord tympani?

Nerve that originates from the taste buds in the front of the tongue, runs through the middle ear and carries taste messages to the brain

94

What does the chord tympani join to and where?

With the facial nerve in the facial canal

95

What is CN VI?

Abducens nerve

96

How does CN X leave the skull?

Through the jugular foramen

97

What is the function of CN VI?

Motor function to the lateral rectus muscle to direct gaze laterally

98

What are the three lobes of the cerebellum?

Anterior lobe
Posterior lobe
Flocculonodular lobe

99

How does CN V3 leave the skull?

Through the foramen ovale

100

How does CN II exit the skull?

Through the optic canal

101

Where do the 3 branches of CN V converge and where is this located?

Trigeminal ganglion - in Meckel's cave

102

What autonomic functions are controlled in the medulla?

Breathing
Heart rate
Blood pressure

103

What 2 nerves exit the skull through the internal acoustic meatus?

Facial nerve
Vestibulocochlear nerve

104

What is the substantial nigra?

A concentration of neurons that use dopamine and are involved in both motor function and emotion

105

What is the function of CN III?

Somatic - innervate muscles to raie upper eyelid, and control superior, inferior and medial gaze
Visceral - control constriction of pupil and control accommodation of lens

106

What is the somatic motor function of CN VII?

innervate muscles of facial expression

107

What is the function of CN XII?

Motor innervation to muscles of tongue, except palatoglossus

108

What is CN VII?

Facial nerve

109

How does CN V2 leave the skull?

Through foramen rotundum

110

What is the path of CN XI through the skull?

Enters through the foramen magnum and exits via jugular foramen

111

What cranial nerve is most likely to be damaged if there is laceration or contusion to the parotid region and what does it cause?

CN VII (facial nerve)
Bells palsy - paralysis of facial muscles

112

Where does CN III originate?

Midbrain

113

What separates the lobes of the cerebellum?

Primary fissure - separates anterior and posterior
Posterior fissure - above flocculonodular

114

What does damage to CN VI cause?

Inability to rotate the eye laterally with diplopia on lateral gaze

115

What are the three parts of the midbrain?

Tectum
Tegmentum
Paired cerebral peduncles

116

How is damage to CN II usually caused?

Trauma
Pressure
Clot

117

What is CN XII?

Hypoglossal nerve

118

Where does CN XII emerge from the brainstem?

Medulla

119

What is CN I and what is its function?

Olfactory nerve - sense of smell

120

What is the function of CN V3?

Sensation of skin over mandible, including TMJ and mucosa of mouth
Motor innervation of muscles of mastication

121

What is CN III?

Oculomotor nerve

122

What is the function of CN V2?

Sensation of skin over maxilla

123

Where are the pontine nuclei found?

Pons