Diabetes (27) Flashcards Preview

CEDB30004 Stem Cells in Development and Regeneration > Diabetes (27) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes (27) Deck (19):
1

What is correct about Adult Stem Cells?
a. They can be cultured for extended periods of time
b. They are purified from adult tissues and make a restricted range of cell types
c. They are not currently used in clinical treatments
d. They can turn into any cell type


b. They are purified from adult tissues and make a restricted range of cell types

2

What is FALSE about diabetes?
a. It is a chronic disease in which the body does not handle glucose appropriately
b. Glucose remains in the blood rather than being taken up by tissues
c. High blood glucose can result in hyperglycaemia
d. Endogenous insulin in absent in those with Type 2 diabetes

d. Endogenous insulin in absent in those with Type 2 diabetes

3

When comparing type 1 and type 2 diabetes:
a. Type 2 diabetes has a sudden onset
b. Type 1 diabetes develops in adulthood
c. Ketoacidiosi in rare in type 1 diabetes
d. Autoantibodies are absent in type 2 diabetes

d. Autoantibodies are absent in type 2 diabetes

4

What is FALSE about the pancreas?
a. It contains mesocrine cells which secrete hormones into the blood
b. Endocrine cells exist in clusters called islets
c. It contains exocrine cells that secrete digestive enzymes into the gut
d. It is connected to the bloodstream and gut

a. It contains mesocrine cells which secrete hormones into the blood

5

Which statement about hormones produced by islets is correct?
a. Beta cells produce somatostatin which is a regulatory hormone
b. Alpha cells produce glucagon when blood glucose is low
c. Delta cells produce insulin when blood glucose is high
d. 75% of islet cells are alpha cells which encourage glycogen to glucose conversion

b. Alpha cells produce glucagon when blood glucose is low

6

In regards to the current treatments for type 1 diabetes:
a. Insulin injections can prevent further complications
b. Islets transplantations do not require immunosuppression
c. There is a lack of donor material for islet transplantations
d. Insulin injections and catheters can control blood glucose perfectly

c. There is a lack of donor material for islet transplantations

7

What occurs during the development of beta cells?
1. Cells committed to endocrine lineage
2. Cells pass through Pancreatic endoderm
3. Cells pass through Definitive endoderm
4. Cells pass through Epiblast
5. Cells pass through Primitive streak
6. Cells pass through Foregut

4. Cells pass through Epiblast
5. Cells pass through Primitive streak
3. Cells pass through Definitive endoderm
6. Cells pass through Foregut
2. Cells pass through Pancreatic endoderm
1. Cells committed to endocrine lineage

8

Which is not an important hormone in defining the three main islet cells?
a. Glycogen
b. Somatostatin
c. Glucagon
d. Insulin

a. Glycogen

9

Which is correct about the ideal use of differentiated beta cells to treat type 1 diabetes?
a. Fully differentiated cells are more likely to contain unwanted cells that could form teratomas
b. You cannot test the functionality of fully differentiated cells before transplantation
c. The ideal product would contain fully differentiated cells and beta cell progenitors
d. Mature differentiated cells would take a long time to begin working in vivo

c. The ideal product would contain fully differentiated cells and beta cell progenitors

10

What is FALSE about encapsulation?
a. Pores in the capsule allow glucose and insulin to pass through but prevent cells like T cells from accessing beta cells
b. It allows transplanted beta cells to be contained in a single easily retrievable site if any issues develop
c. It is possible the device could elicit a fibrotic response which would cause transplanted beta cells to be starved of nutrients
d. The capsules must be very thick in order to store enough transplanted beta cells and be considered efficient

d. The capsules must be very thick in order to store enough transplanted beta cells and be considered efficient

11

• Type 1 diabetes involves specific immune mediated destruction of beta cells.







T

12

• Insulin directs cells to take glucose from the blood for storage or use.

T

13

• Type 1 diabetes results in insulin resistance and beta cells fail due to having to work overtime to maintain blood glucose levels.

F (type 2)

14

• Type 2 diabetes constitutes 10% of all diabetes.

F

15

• The antigen that causes autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes has been well characterised.

F

16

• Pancreas transplants are usually more successful than islet transplants, but are usually only performed when the patient requires another organ transplant too.

T

17

• The two main issues that need to be considered when designing type 1 diabetes treatments is that new beta cells must be supplied to increase beta cell mass and that the immune system must be controlled.

T

18

• iPS cells will treat type 1 diabetes successfully as they are a genetic match to the patient and won’t be rejected by the immune system.

F

19

• Endocrine cells produce NKX2.2.

T