Muscle Stem Cells (29) Flashcards Preview

CEDB30004 Stem Cells in Development and Regeneration > Muscle Stem Cells (29) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscle Stem Cells (29) Deck (17):
1

Which cells give rise to new muscle?
a. Sarcolemma Cells
b. Dystophin cells
c. Satellite cells
d. Basal Lamina Cells


c. Satellite cells

2

What is INcorrect about muscular dystrophy?
a. It is an X linked lethal disorder
b. It leads to progressive muscle necrosis and loss of skeletal muscle in 1 in 3000 boys
c. The loss of dystrophin leads to a loss of myofibres
d. It results from a dystrophin defect that results in excess linking of actin and sarcolemma

d. It results from a dystrophin defect that results in excess linking of actin and sarcolemma

3

What is correct about myoblast transfer therapy?
a. A functional dystrophin gene is directly delivered to MDX mouse models using a gene gun
b. Defective dystrophin is replaced within multinucleated myofibres
c. The donor and host nuclei remain in separate cells
d. The process occurs independently of myoblast fusion during myogenesis

b. Defective dystrophin is replaced within multinucleated myofibres

4

What is NOT a consideration in using myoblast transfer therapy as gene therapy?
a. The source of myoblasts and whether to use muscle or other cells
b. The myoblasts must only be delivered into muscle
c. Which markers can be used to track donor myoblasts
d. Whether myoblasts can be delivered to the circulation as an alternative to muscle

b. The myoblasts must only be delivered into muscle

5

What is correct about the source of myoblasts and cell types in skeletal muscle tissue?
a. Skeletal muscle only contains myogenic precursor cells and satellite cells
b. Myofibres contain mesenchymal stem cells
c. Many cells can be found outside myofibres including pericytes and bone marrow derived stem cells
d. Circulating cells and interstitial stem cells are localised to the myofibre and basement membrane

c. Many cells can be found outside myofibres including pericytes and bone marrow derived stem cells

6

What would NOT be used to track the fate of donor myoblasts?
a. Y chromosome probes
b. A marker for the dystrophin protein
c. Reporter genes for transgenic donor nuclei, such as LacZ
d. X chromosome probes

d. X chromosome probes

7

What is a feature of Y-chromosome specific probes?
a. They can be used to identify donor male nuclei as DMD is an X linked disease
b. They are tissue specific
c. They can only be used in human subjects
d. They are unstable and only show diseased cells

a. They can be used to identify donor male nuclei as DMD is an X linked disease

8

What was shown by using sliced muscle grafts as an alternative to myoblast transfer therapy?
a. Male donor myoblasts showed poor survival in female host muscle
b. There was extensive migration of male donor cells into host tissue
c. A Y-1 probe was used to demonstrate strong survival of male donor nuclei
d. Sliced muscle grafts were only successful when the donors were also female

c. A Y-1 probe was used to demonstrate strong survival of male donor nuclei

9

What is correct about using myoblast transfer therapy in dystrophic host female mice?
a. The myoblasts survive after 6 months and PCR confirms their abundance in myofibres
b. PCR can show the total donor male nuclei as well as dmeonstarting location of myoblasts in female host tissue
c. It is likely that the adverse effects of tissue culture dampened the survival of myoblasts in vivo
d. Myoblasts grow rapidly and in massive numbers after 3 days in vivo

c. It is likely that the adverse effects of tissue culture dampened the survival of myoblasts in vivo

10

What would be the ideal delivery method of donor myoblasts?
a. Autograft genetically corrected bone marrow derived myogenic stem cells
b. Directly inject myoblasts into DMD muscles
c. Using heterologous cells harvested from bone marrow
d. Harvest satellite cells from the patient, spin them down, and re-infuse into the patient

a. Autograft genetically corrected bone marrow derived myogenic stem cells

11

What is correct about using bone marrow derived stem cells for MTT?
a. Donor male nuclei successfully enter host muscle cells and express dystrophin
b. Bone marrow derived cells integrate into host muscle but are silent
c. The conversion of bone marrow cells to muscle nuclei is efficient and common
d. Findings have been clinically useful in aiding treatment of DMD patients

b. Bone marrow derived cells integrate into host muscle but are silent

12

What is correct about studies of Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy?
a. Dogs had a very consistent phenotype
b. Heterologous delivery of mesoangioblasts required immunosuppression
c. The data is reliable due to the use of controls and proof of functional improvement
d. The study provided proof of principle and paved the way for clinical trials

b. Heterologous delivery of mesoangioblasts required immunosuppression

13

Which is NOT a consideration in using stem cells in MTT?
a. The source of cells and capacity to expand
b. The amount of muscle formed and functional improvements
c. Systemic delivery must be avoided to avoid cancer
d. Longevity of donor nuclei may require repeat treatments

c. Systemic delivery must be avoided to avoid cancer

14

• In DMD, regeneration of muscle fails and myofibres are more fragile.



T

15

• Bone marrow cells cannot form myogenic progenitor cells using lacZ and lineage specific myogenic myosin light chain promoter.

F

16

• Human ESC and iPSC derived myogenic progenitors can restore dystrophin and improve contractibility in dystrophic mice.

T

17

• Providing proof of principle is good enough to start clinical trials.

F