Sex Stem Cells (9) Flashcards Preview

CEDB30004 Stem Cells in Development and Regeneration > Sex Stem Cells (9) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sex Stem Cells (9) Deck (21):
1

What is a false statement about primordial germ cells?
a. The preserve genetic integrity and generate genetic diversity
b. Errors in differentiation can lead to infertility and cancer
c. They are the only naturally occurring totipotent cells
d. They give rise to egg and sperm and are the only cells to undergo meiosis




c. They are the only naturally occurring totipotent cells

2

How do the different methods of specification compare?
a. European style emphasises the role of neighbouring cells
b. American style emphasises the role of ancestors and cell linage
c. Preformation emphasises the combined role of cell linage and neighbouring cells and is also referred to as European style
d. Induction is also referred to as American style and specification depends on neighbouring cells

d. Induction is also referred to as American style and specification depends on neighbouring cells

3

Which animal specifies PGCs by induction?
a. Drosophila
b. Zebrafish
c. Mouse
d. C. elegans

c. Mouse

4

What is the role of BMP4?
a. Activation of BLIMP1 and PRDM14 via ALK2 and SMAD signalling in mouse PGCs
b. Degradation of Retinoic Acid in the testes
c. Activation of genes for epigenetic reprogramming and somatic mesoderm in mouse PGCs
d. Allow PGC migration through the Drosophila midgut

a. Activation of BLIMP1 and PRDM14 via ALK2 and SMAD signalling in mouse PGCs

5

What is not involved in the migration of drosophila PGCs to the gonads?
a. Germ cells are formed at the pole of the embryo
b. The cells migrate on the midgut before migrating into the mesoderm
c. The cells take 10 days to reach the gonads
d. Migration finishes with gonad coalescence

c. The cells take 10 days to reach the gonads

6

Which molecule does not play an important role in the migration of mouse PGCs to the gonads?
a. C-kit
b. Oct4
c. Steel
d. SDF1

b. Oct4

7

How does PGC migration in birds differ from other animals?
a. PGCs migrate along the midgut as opposed to in the blood like in mice
b. PGCs that don’t reach the gonads pose no risk of extra gonadal germ cell tumour formation
c. PGCs that don’t reach the gonads are removed by apoptosis due to the action of BAX
d. Migration is driven by interactions between steel and the c-Kit ligand

c. PGCs that don’t reach the gonads are removed by apoptosis due to the action of BAX

8

What happens when retinoic acid is artificially increased in the testis?
a. Meiosis occurs prematurely
b. There is no response
c. CYP26B1 is downregulated
d. ALDH1A2 degrades Stra8

b. There is no response

9

What is the role of ALDH1A2?
a. It drives retinoic acid expression in male and female mesenephros
b. It degrades retinoic acid in the testis
c. It binds to Stra8 to initiate meiosis
d. It influences testis development

a. It drives retinoic acid expression in male and female mesenephros

10

What is false about GDNF (glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor) ?
a. It is a member of the TGFB superfamily
b. It is secreted by sertoli cells
c. It is expressed strongly in the ovary
d. It is critical for the survival and self-renewal of SSCs

c. It is expressed strongly in the ovary

11

What is not a feature of LGR5?
a. It is a marker on ovarian somatic stem cells and adult stem cells such as those of the colon and small intestine
b. It is a WNT target gene and G-protein-coupled-receptor for R-spondins
c. It is upregulated in some cancers
d. It is found exclusively on ovarian somatic stem cells and testis somatic stem cells

d. It is found exclusively on ovarian somatic stem cells and testis somatic stem cells

12

• Germline cells are segregated from somatic cells during development and not from oocyte in the specification of mouse PGCs.









T

13

• The most critical molecule for PGC specification in the mouse is BMP4.

T

14

• The C-kit ligand can be mutated to increase the amount of PGCs that reach the gonads.

F

15

• Mouse germ cells migrate much faster than drosophila germ cells.

F

16

• During differentiation of PGCs, the Sex genotype decides if the genital ridge becomes testis or ovary and this environment determines if germ cells differentiate.

T

17

• If XY PGCs are put in the ovary, they develop as oocytes.

T

18

• Spermatogonium enter meiosis before birth and Oogonium enter meiosis post natally.

F

19

• Ovary germ cells enter meiosis in embryogenesis and arrest in prophase 1. Male germ cells enter meiotic arrest until puberty.

T

20

• The Spermatogonial Stem Cell niche is aided by tight junctions that form the blood testis barrier.

T

21

• Somatic stem cells can be found in both the ovaries and testis.

F