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BDS2 BAMS > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (8)
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1

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

polyuria, polydipsia, tiredness

2

Describe type I diabetes.

insulin deficiency; autoimmune condition, immune mediated pancreatic B cell destruction, autoantibodies (IAA - insulin autoantibodies, ICA - islet cell antibodies), often in young people, but LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults).

3

What are the management options for diabetes?

type I: insulin regiments
type II: weight loss, diet restriction (avoid carbohydrates), surgery (gastric bypass), oral hypoglycaemia agents (sulphonylureas increase insulin secretion - gliclazide, biguanides increase insulin sensitivity - metformin, thiazolidinediones - rosiglitazone)

4

What are the complications of diabetes?

large vessel - atheroma, angina, MI, claudication, anneurysm
small vessel - poor wound healing, infection risk, renal disease, eye disease (retinopathy), neuropathy
type I: hypoglycaemia (unconscious, confused, pale), diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemia

5

What is the dental relevance of diabetes?

poor wound healing, appointment time, hypoglycaemic episodes, infection risk, CVS risk

6

Describe type II diabetes.

insulin insensitivity; older, obese, MODY possible (maturity onset diabetes in young), strong family history, dyslipidaemia, procoagulant epithelial markers, early and accelerated atherosclerosis, gradual onset

7

What is the action of insulin? When is it released?

Released in response to raised blood glucose concentration
Acts to lower blood glucose
Facilitates glucose entry into: muscle cells, adipocytes (glucose uptake by liver is not insulin dependent)
Promotes formation of: glycogen, triglycerides, facilitates protein synthesis

8

What is the action of glucagon? When is it released?

Released in response to low blood glucose concentrations
Acts to raise blood glucose levels
Facilitates: glucogenesis in liver, gluconeogenesis in liver, lipolysis, ketone synthesis