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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (14)
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How is cystic fibrosis passed down? What are the genetics of this?

inherited disorder; CFTR gene chromosome 7; recessive gene


How does cystic fibrosis affect the body?

defect in cell chloride channels - produces excess sticky mucous
lungs are congested; pancreas - malabsorption of nutrients


How do you test for cystic fibrosis?

perinatal testing - all children are now screened at birth
sweat test - CF patients have higher salt content in sweat


What are the treatment options for someone with cystic fibrosis?

physiotherapy - aids movement of mucous so that it can be coughed up easier
medication - bronchodilators, antibiotics, steroids, dnase
exercise - necessary to keep lung function optimal and to build strength and physical bulk
transplantation - usually a heart lung transplant as lung disease normally causes right heart failure


What is asthma?

Reversible airflow obstruction
Bronchial hyper reactivity
Three Ms - muscle constriction, mucous secretion, mucosa inflammation


What is the aetiology of asthma?

Triggers - infections, environmental stimuli, cold air, atopy


What are the signs and symptoms of asthma and COPD?

Cough, wheeze, shortness of breath, stridor, dyspnoea, pain
Signs - chest movement with respiration, respiration rate, air entry (is it symmetrical, reduced), vocal resonance (does speech sound muffled through chest or normal), percussion note (resonant, dull)


What are the investigations for asthma and COPD?

Sputum exam, CXR (chest radiography), bronchoscopy, pulmonary function (PEFR, FEV1, FEV1/VC), VQ scan


What are the treatment options for asthma? Which of these is the most effective?

Drugs (beta-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergic, corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors, chromones, theophyllines)
Corticosteroids are the most effective.


What is the dental relevance for asthma and COPD?

Ability to attend the dentist (home oxygen use - inflammable), use of inhaled steroids (candida risk), smokers (oral cancer risk)


What is COPD?

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Irreversible obstructive airway disease
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema


What is the aetiology of COPD?

Smoking, environmental lung damage (occupational lung diseases, coal, silica, beryllium, asbestos)
Hereditary - emphysema


What are the treatment options for COPD?

Smoking cessation, long acting bronchodilator, inhaled steroids, oxygen support, pulmonary rehabilitation therapy


What are the different colours of inhalers and what are drugs are these?

Blue inhaler - short acting B agonist - salbutamol, terbutaline
Green inhaler - long acting B agonist - salmeterol
Brown inhaler - corticosteroid - beclomethasone
Orange inhaler - more potent corticosteroid - fluticosone
Pink inhaler - most potent corticosteroid - mometasone