Flashcards in Thyroid Diseases Deck (10)
What is the aetiology for hyperthyroidism?
Graves disease (70-80% of cases), toxic multi-nodular goitre, toxic adenoma, pituitary tumour
What are the signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism?
increased metabolism, hot excess sweating, weight loss, diarrhoea, palpitations, muscle weakness, irrtiable, manic, anxious, warm moist skin, tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, increased BP, heart failure, tremor, hypereflexia, eyelid retraction, lip lag
What are the investigations for hyperthyroidism?
blood (TSH, T3 and T4), imaging (ultrasound, radioisotope scans), tissue biopsy
pituitary cause (rarer) = raised TSH, raised T3
Graves, adenoma (common) = low TSH, raised T3
What are the treatment options for hyperthyroidism?
drugs (carbizamole, B blockers), radioiodine, surgery (partial thyroidectomy)
What is the dental relevance for hyperthyroidism?
goitre detectable, pain anxiety and psychiatric problems, caution for treatment until controlled, otherwise treat patients as normal
What is the aetiology for hypothyroidism?
autoimmune (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis (90% of cases), idiopathic atrophy, radioiodine treatment, iodine deficiency, drugs (carbizamole, amiodarone, lithium)
congenital - primary
hypothalamic/pituitary disease - secondary
What are the signs and symptoms for hypothyroidism?
reduced metabolism, tired, cold intolerance, weight gain, constipation, hoarse voice, goitre, puffed face and extremities, angina, slow poor memory loss, hair loss
What are the investigations for hypothyroidism?
blood (TSH, T3, T4), imaging (ultrasound, radioisotope scans), tissue biopsy
pituitary cause (rarer) = low TSH, low T4
gland failure (common) = high TSH, low T4
What are the treatment options for hypothyroidism?
give T4 tablets (thyroxine)