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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (47)
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What are the risk factors of Type 1 diabetes?

no major risk factors: genetic and environment factors both play a role


What are the signs and symptoms of Type 1 diabetes?

Polyuria, polydypsia, polyphagia (increased appetite), fatigue, weakness, rapid weight loss, blurred vision


What is the renal threshold for glucosuria?

~180-200 mg/dl


What are the risk factors for Type 2 diabetes?

MUST HAVE GENETIC PREDISPOSITION. Additional factors: Age, ethnicity (african american, mexican, asian american, american indian and pacific islands), obesity, sedentary lifestyle, diet high in saturated fat, low in fiber / CHO


What signs and symptoms distinguish Type 2 from Type 1 diabetes?

Warning signs typically worsen over a long time. Also: Numbness / tingling associated with neuropathy from prolonged high blood sugar periods, more gradual weight loss, and acanthosis nigricans


What is is acanthosis nigricans? What triggers it?

Skin pigmentation disorder characterized by dark, hyperkeratin plaques found in axillae, back of neck, and other flexural areas. Triggered by high insulin levels in the blood


What puts an individual at risk for gestational diabetes GDM?

Obese women, advanced maternal age, GDM in previous pregnancy, family history, belongs to an at-risk ethnicity


How does a fasting plasma glucose work? Who is this best for?

Patient has 8-12 hour overnight fast. This is preferred for non-pregnant adults and children


How does an A1c work? Who is this best for?

Checks the amount of glycated hemoglobin, which is good because no fasting is required. Not good for children (poor data)


What are the threshold values for FPG and A1c for pre-diabetes?

100-125 mg/dl = impaired fasting glucose
5.7 to 6.4% = a1c


What are the threshold values for FPG and A1c for diabetes?

126 or above mg/dl = diabetes
6.5% or above for A1c


What is the oral glucose tolerance test and what is it best used for?

Best used in pregnancy for gestational diabetes, can use a 1 or two step strategy, two step does a non-fasting first. Fasting will ultimately need to be done in both to confirm


How high must blood glucose levels be in a random blood test to diagnosis diabetes?

>200 mg/dl with significant symptoms


What type of sweetener is sucrose and what must be done when patients take it?

Nutritive, it is table sugar. can be substituted for another, but need to count consumption and cover with insulin / meds. Limit use


What type of sweetener is fructose? How does it affect blood sugar and what are your recommendations for patients?

Nutritive - naturally occurs in fruits and vegetables.

Less effect than sucrose on postprandial blood glucose, but has adverse effects on plasma lipids

Recommendation: avoid added fructose in processed foods


What type of sweetener are sugar alcohols and what must be considered about them?

Nutritive - 1/2 calories of sucrose
Sorbitol and mannitol are examples. Consider laxative effects if eaten in high amounts, and they do have calories so they are not "free"


What are general recommendations regarding nonnutritive sweeteners?

Acceptable Daily Intake levels (ADI) are established by FDA (1/100 level which produce observable efects). Considered safe


What is Acesulfame-K's street name?

Sweet One


What is Aspartame's street name?

Equal, NutraSweet


What is Saccharin's street name?

Sweet N Low


What is sucralose's street name?



What is neotame's street name?



What is Advantame?

General purpose sweetener


What are generally regarded as safe sweeteners?

Stevia, Luo Han Guo


What is the recommended calories from fat for diabetic patients, and who goes on the low / high end?

25-35% of calories
Low: Overweight, those with metabolic syndrome + abnormal lipid profiles
High: Well-controlled patients with good lipid profiles and normal weight


What are the recommendations for specialty fats in diabetes? I.e. saturated fats, trans fat, cholesterol

<7% of calories saturated fats
No trans fat
Choose from mono and polyunsaturated sources, especially omega-3 fatty acids, i.e. nuts, seeds, fish, olive oil, canola oil.
Limit cholesterol to <200 mg per day


How much protein should a diabetic patient be consuming?

Same as normal: 0.8-1g per kg. 10-20% of total calories However, newly diagnosed should be at 1g/kg because they are catabolic


How much protein is in 1 oz of meat / poultry? What are some equivalents for vegetarians?

~7g protein. Size of palm = 3 oz.

Vegeterians: 1/2 cup of beans is 6-9 g, milk = 8 g / cup.


What is the recommended intake of fiber for diabetics?

Although one study showed that it improved glycemic control, recommendations are not for extra consumption. 14g / 1000 kcal is recommended = 20-35 g per day feasibly


How do you get patients to aim for 30 grams of fiber per day? What additional recommendation do you give them?

10 g from grains / cereals - i.e. oatmeal, whole grain
10 g from fruits / vegetables - i.e. raspberries / blackberries
10 g from legumes, nuts, and seeds
DRINK WATER to avoid constipation