Diabetes Pathogenesis Flashcards Preview

Yr 2 Endocrine > Diabetes Pathogenesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Pathogenesis Deck (9):

How does Type 1 diabetes develop?

Autoimmune condition in which lymphocyte infiltration of Islets of Langerhans causes insulitis, destroying B cells and compromising the ability to absorb Glc from blood.


Describe the aetiology of Type 1 Diabetes?

A combination of genetics and environmental factors.

Human leukocyte Antigens (HLA) + chemicals or viral infection


Describe the aetiology of Type 2 Diabetes?

A combination of insulin resistance due to visceral fat and genetic inability to secrete high levels of insulin


What causes insulin resistance in Type 2?

Visceral fat mass
-> Free FAs in the blood
-> FAs clog Insulin receptors
-> Reduced insulin sensitivity


Explain the genetic aspect of Type 2 diabetes?

Most peoples genes are capable of upscaling insulin production to match insulin resistance.

In some people a number of genes are 'defective variants' which code for Poor B cell 'high end' insulin secretion.

Essentially they can't produce enough insulin to match the new insulin resistance


If visceral fat triggers Type 2 diabetes, how come some slim people get it?

They're genes are so poor for insulin production that even a small amount of fat triggers diabetes


Explain the aetiology of MODY?

Autosomal dominant genetic syndrome.
A single gene leads to impaired B-cell function.
Either Glucokinase or Transcription Factor mutations.


What can cause secondary DM?

- Drugs e.g. CCS
- Pancreatic Destruction/removal
- Genetic syndromes
- Endocrine disorders e.g. cushings, acromegaly or pheochromocytoma


What is the aetiology of Gestational diabetes?

Insulin resistance brought on by 2nd/3rd trimester of pregnancy.

Its associated with a family history of Type 2 DM

Patient's are commonly overweight and inactive