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Flashcards in Diagnosis and Assessment Deck (35):

What are the new changes in DSM-5?

  • Removal of multiaxial system
  • Changes in organisation of diagnoses 
  • Combining of diagnosis 
  • Ethnic and cultural consideration in diagnosis
  • New diagnoses
  • Renaming of diagnoses


Define ego-syntonic conditions

a condition where behaviors, values, and feelings that are in harmony with or acceptable to the needs and goals of the ego, or consistent with one's ideal self-image


What neurobiological assessment techniques can be used to assess an individuals' mental health?

- Brain imaging (i.e. CT, MRI, PET, fMRI etc.) - Psychophysiological assessment (i.e. ECG, EEG etc.) - Neuropsychological assessment


Who published the ICD-10?



Which of the following methods tends to be used for diagnostic purposes more often by practicing clinicians?

  a) Review of DSM symptoms through an informal clinical interview

  b) Administration of the Structured Clinical Interview

  c) Structured clinical interview plus administration of the MMPI-2

  d) Informal clinical interview plus projective tests

a) Review of DSM symptoms through an informal clinical interview


Define comorbidity

the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder


Define labelling theory

the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. It is associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping


Electrocardiograms, electrodermal responding, and electroencephalograms are examples of __________ assessments.

  a) psychological

  b) psychophysiological

  c) neuropsychological

  d) neurophysiological

  b) psychophysiological


How do structured interviews aim to psychologically assess individuals?

  • All interviewers ask the same questions in a predetermined order
  • Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I of DSM


What are some non-interview psychological assessments?

  • Self-report inventories (i.e. MMPI)
  • Projective tests (i.e. Rorschach Inkblot Test)
  • Intelligence/cognitive tests
  • Observation of behaviour
  • Self-observation


What are the problems with defining mental disorders based on their statistical rarity?

  • Some psychological phenomena are statistically rare but not a disorder (i.e. giftedness)
  • Some common phenomena are regarded as disorders (i.e. anxiety and depression)


When was the first edition of the DSM published?



Tania did poorly on the math section of the IQ test after being told that typically men performed better on that section. Marie, on the other hand, did as well as the men when taking the math section of the IQ test. Marie was told that there were no gender differences in performance. This is an example of

  a) confusion created by the test.

  b) stereotype threat.

  c) predictive reliability.

  d) interrater reliability.

  b) stereotype threat.


If a clinician has only five to ten minutes available to administer an assessment, which type would they most likely choose?

  a) A self-report checklist

  b) The MMPI

  c) The Rorschach

  d) A structured clinical interview

  a) A self-report checklist


Graduate schools can help to minimize the negative effects of cultural biases when assessing patients by teaching each of the following important issues EXCEPT:

  a) the basic issues in assessment, such as reliability and validity

  b) the specific ways in which culture and ethnicity may impact assessment rather than more global stereotypes about a particular cultural or ethnic group

  c) that culture or ethnicity will impact every assessment in every case

  d) that culture or ethnicity will not impact every assessment in every case

c) that culture or ethnicity will impact every assessment in every case


Does the DSM-5 rely on a categorical or dimensional system of diagnosis?

Categorical classification


Define Internal Classification of Diseases (ICD)

the global health information standard for mortality and morbidity statistics


Using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule, researchers have found that life stressors are robust predictors of episodes of all the following EXCEPT:

  a) anxiety.

  b) depression.

  c) mania.

  d) the common cold.

  c) mania.


The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska tests are examples of __________ assessments.

  a) neuroanatomical

  b) neuropsychological

  c) neurological

  d) neurotransmitter

  b) neuropsychological


What might be some criticisms of classifying abnormal behaviours?

  • Stigma
  • Doesn't consider "uniqueness"
  • Self-fulfilling
  • Biases (social/cultural etc.)


How do informal interviews aim to psychologically assess individuals?

  • Interviewer attends to how questions are answered
  • Is response accompanied by appropriate emotion? 
  • Does client fail to answer question?
  • Good rapport essential to earn trust 
  • Empathy and accepting attitude necessary
  • Reliability lower than for structural interviews


Collections of specific symptoms that are likely to be seen and diagnosed only within certain regions of the world are known as

a) cultural concepts of distress.

b) atypical diagnostic entities.

c) cross-culture variations.

d) non-dominant presentations.

a) cultural concepts of distress.


Define Ego-dystonic conditions

a condition where aspects of a person's thoughts, impulses, attitudes, and behavior that are felt to be repugnant, distressing, unacceptable, or inconsistent with the rest of the personality


What are some criticism of the DSM?

  • Too many diagnoses (co-morbidity and over-pathologized common reactions)
  • Interrater reliability


Define interrater reliability

statistical measurements that determine how similar the data collected by different raters are


The DSM-5 was changed from prior versions in each of the following ways EXCEPT:

a) removal of the multiaxial system

b) diagnoses are organized based on causes versus similarity of symptoms

c) greater continuity between childhood and adult forms of disorders

d) removal of cultural variables and culture-related disorders

d) removal of cultural variables and culture-related disorders


Define World Health Organisation (WHO)

a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health


In order to be more culturally sensitive, some tests that were developed in the United States have been translated into different languages. Steps taken to ensure that the meaning of the words is the same across different cultures include all of the following EXCEPT:

  a) working with multiple translators.

  b) back-translating.

  c) testing with multiple native speakers.

  d) translating cultural shifts.

  d) translating cultural shifts.


Define Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM)

a comprehensive classification of officially recognized psychiatric disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association , for use by mental health professionals to ensure uniformity of diagnosis


What happens if an individual has one less symptom than specified by the DSM?

They are not diagnosed with the disorder but may have NOS ("Not Otherwise Specified) condition


Clinicians are encouraged to be particularly tentative about drawing conclusions with patients from different cultures and ethnic backgrounds. Instead, they should do all of the following EXCEPT:

  a) form an opinion and go about confirming it

  b) make a hypothesis about the culture of a particular client

  c) entertain alternative hypotheses

  d) test the hypotheses

  a) form an opinion and go about confirming it


What are the problems with defining mental disorders based on their subjective distress?

- This definition does not distinguish from ego-dystonic conditions and ego-syntonic conditions


Two of the most common types of psychological tests are __________ and __________ tests.

  a) cognitive; behavioral

  b) psychodynamic; personality

  c) neurological; intelligence

  d) personality; intelligence

  d) personality; intelligence


Jaime was asked to collect information in real time by using a PDA to record her thoughts, moods and stressors. This is an example of

  a) personality assessment.

  b) ecological momentary assessment.

  c) a self-report checklist.

  d) a projective test.

  b) ecological momentary assessment.


What are some of the reasons individuals and clinicians may want to classify/diagnose mental disorders?

  • Can help people make sense of their symptoms 
  • Easier for clinicians 
  • Advances research 
  • Enables effective communication