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Flashcards in Diagnosis and Assessment Deck (22):

Define comorbidity

the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder


Define Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM)

a comprehensive classification of officially recognized psychiatric disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association , for use by mental health professionals to ensure uniformity of diagnosis


Define Ego-dystonic conditions

a condition where aspects of a person's thoughts, impulses, attitudes, and behavior that are felt to be repugnant, distressing, unacceptable, or inconsistent with the rest of the personality


Define ego-syntonic conditions

a condition where behaviors, values, and feelings that are in harmony with or acceptable to the needs and goals of the ego, or consistent with one's ideal self-image


Define Internal Classification of Diseases (ICD)

the global health information standard for mortality and morbidity statistics


Define interrater reliability

statistical measurements that determine how similar the data collected by different raters are


Define labelling theory

the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. It is associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping


Define World Health Organisation (WHO)

a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health


What are some of the reasons individuals and clinicians may want to classify/diagnose mental disorders?

- Can help people make sense of their symptoms
- Easier for clinicians
- Advances research
- Enables effective communication


What are the problems with defining mental disorders based on their statistical rarity?

- Some psychological phenomena are statistically rare but not a disorder (i.e. giftedness)
- Some common phenomena are regarded as disorders (i.e. anxiety and depression)


What are the problems with defining mental disorders based on their subjective distress?

- This definition does not distinguish from ego-dystonic conditions and ego-syntonic conditions


Who published the ICD-10?



When was the first edition of the DSM published?



What are the new changes in DSM-5?

- Removal of multiaxial system
- Changes in organisation of diagnoses
- Combining of diagnosis
- Ethnic and cultural consideration in diagnosis
- New diagnoses
- Renaming of diagnoses


What are some criticism of the DSM?

- Too many diagnoses (co-morbidity and over-pathologized common reactions)
- Interrater reliability


Does the DSM-5 rely on a categorical or dimensional system of diagnosis?

Categorical classification


What happens if an individual has one less symptom than specified by the DSM?

They are not diagnosed with the disorder but may have NOS ("Not Otherwise Specified) condition


What might be some criticisms of classifying abnormal behaviours?

- Stigma
- Doesn't consider "uniqueness"
- Self-fulfilling
- Biases (social/cultural etc.)


How do informal interviews aim to psychologically assess individuals?

- Interviewer attends to how questions are answered
- Is response accompanied by appropriate emotion?
- Does client fail to answer question?
- Good rapport essential to earn trust
- Empathy and accepting attitude necessary
- Reliability lower than for structural interviews


How do structured interviews aim to psychologically assess individuals?

- All interviewers ask the same questions in a predetermined order
- Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I of DSM


What are some non-interview psychological assessments?

- Self-report inventories (i.e. MMPI)
- Projective tests (i.e. Rorschach Inkblot Test)
- Intelligence/cognitive tests
- Observation of behaviour
- Self-observation


What neurobiological assessment techniques can be used to assess an individuals' mental health?

- Brain imaging (i.e. CT, MRI, PET, fMRI etc.)
- Psychophysiological assessment (i.e. ECG, EEG etc.)
- Neuropsychological assessment