Flashcards in Diagnosis and Assessment Deck (22):
the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder
Define Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM)
a comprehensive classification of officially recognized psychiatric disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association , for use by mental health professionals to ensure uniformity of diagnosis
Define Ego-dystonic conditions
a condition where aspects of a person's thoughts, impulses, attitudes, and behavior that are felt to be repugnant, distressing, unacceptable, or inconsistent with the rest of the personality
Define ego-syntonic conditions
a condition where behaviors, values, and feelings that are in harmony with or acceptable to the needs and goals of the ego, or consistent with one's ideal self-image
Define Internal Classification of Diseases (ICD)
the global health information standard for mortality and morbidity statistics
Define interrater reliability
statistical measurements that determine how similar the data collected by different raters are
Define labelling theory
the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. It is associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping
Define World Health Organisation (WHO)
a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health
What are some of the reasons individuals and clinicians may want to classify/diagnose mental disorders?
- Can help people make sense of their symptoms
- Easier for clinicians
- Advances research
- Enables effective communication
What are the problems with defining mental disorders based on their statistical rarity?
- Some psychological phenomena are statistically rare but not a disorder (i.e. giftedness)
- Some common phenomena are regarded as disorders (i.e. anxiety and depression)
What are the problems with defining mental disorders based on their subjective distress?
- This definition does not distinguish from ego-dystonic conditions and ego-syntonic conditions
Who published the ICD-10?
When was the first edition of the DSM published?
What are the new changes in DSM-5?
- Removal of multiaxial system
- Changes in organisation of diagnoses
- Combining of diagnosis
- Ethnic and cultural consideration in diagnosis
- New diagnoses
- Renaming of diagnoses
What are some criticism of the DSM?
- Too many diagnoses (co-morbidity and over-pathologized common reactions)
- Interrater reliability
Does the DSM-5 rely on a categorical or dimensional system of diagnosis?
What happens if an individual has one less symptom than specified by the DSM?
They are not diagnosed with the disorder but may have NOS ("Not Otherwise Specified) condition
What might be some criticisms of classifying abnormal behaviours?
- Doesn't consider "uniqueness"
- Biases (social/cultural etc.)
How do informal interviews aim to psychologically assess individuals?
- Interviewer attends to how questions are answered
- Is response accompanied by appropriate emotion?
- Does client fail to answer question?
- Good rapport essential to earn trust
- Empathy and accepting attitude necessary
- Reliability lower than for structural interviews
How do structured interviews aim to psychologically assess individuals?
- All interviewers ask the same questions in a predetermined order
- Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I of DSM
What are some non-interview psychological assessments?
- Self-report inventories (i.e. MMPI)
- Projective tests (i.e. Rorschach Inkblot Test)
- Intelligence/cognitive tests
- Observation of behaviour