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Flashcards in History of Abnormality Deck (16):

Define abnormality

the concept of abnormality is imprecise and difficult to define. There are several different ways in which it is possible to define ‘abnormal’ as opposed to our ideas of what is ‘normal’. These include: Statistical Infrequency, Violation of Social Norms, Failure to Function Adequately, Deviation from Ideal Mental Health and several other models


Define asylum

an institution for the maintenance and care of the mentally ill, orphans, or other persons requiring specialized assistance


Define chemical imbalance theory

a theory that states that mental illnesses are the result of the relative lack of certain neurotransmitters


Define electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

a procedure used to treat certain psychiatric conditions. It involves passing a carefully controlled electric current through the brain, which affects the brain’s activity and aims to relieve severe depressive and psychotic symptoms


Define epigentics

the study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression rather than alteration of the genetic code itself


Define eugenics

the science of improving a population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics


Define exorcism

the expulsion or attempted expulsion of a supposed evil spirit from a person or place


Define frontal lobotomy

a form of psychosurgery, a neurosurgical treatment of a mental disorder that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal cortex


Define genotype

the genetic constitution of an individual organism


Define germ theory of disease

the currently accepted scientific theory of disease. It states that many diseases are caused by microorganisms. These small organisms, too small to see without magnification, invade humans, animals, and other living hosts


Define phenotype

the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment


Define psychogenesis

the psychological cause to which a mental illness or behavioural disturbance may be attributed (as distinct from a physical cause)


Define stigma

a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person


Define trephination

a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury


What two major findings did Hippocrates propose?

1. Behaviour is markedly affected by bodily function
2. Abnormal behaviour caused by chemical imbalance


Who proposed the "germ theory of disease"?

Louis Pasteur