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Flashcards in Sexual Dysfunction Deck (70):

During which phase of the sexual response cycle, do women and men experience pleasure and increased blood flow to the genitalia?

  a) Desire

  b) Excitement

  c) Orgasm

  d) Resolution

  b) Excitement


Define Aetiology

the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition


What female sexual disorders effect interest, desire and arousal?

Female sexual interest/arousal disorder


Research suggests that men with pedophilic disorder have

  a) a higher IQ than the general population.

  b) higher rates of neurocognitive problems.

  c) a sense of emotional incompatibility with children.

  d) experienced sexual abuse themselves in over 90% of cases.

  b) higher rates of neurocognitive problems.


Which is the least common sexual dysfunction in men?

  a) Premature ejaculation disorder

  b) Delayed ejaculation disorder

  c) Orgasmic disorder

  d) Fetishistic disorder

  b) Delayed ejaculation disorder


Define Asphixiophilia

A form of sexual masochism in which oxygen flow to the brain is reduced, as by controlled strangulation or suffocation, in order to enhance the pleasure of masturbation


What other disorders often coexist in individuals with transvestic disorder?



Define Delayed ejaculation

a common medical condition where it takes a prolonged period of sexual stimulation for a man to ejaculate. In some cases, ejaculation cannot be achieved at all


__________ cognitions, such as worries about pregnancy or AIDS, negative attitudes about sex, or concerns about the partner, interfere with sexual functioning.

  a) Unfounded

  b) Superstitious

  c) Negative

  d) Dichotomous

  c) Negative


Why are there difficulties defining what is normal sexual behaviour?

Over-reliance on self-reports and clinical impressions Extensive use of clinical groups without using non-clinical controls


What are the possible treatments of sexual dysfunction?

- Providing basic education about sexual functioning - Dynamic (couples) therapy - Eliminating psychologically based performance anxiety - Medication and physical treatments


The DSM-5 divides sexual dysfunctions into __________ categories.

  a) 5

  b) 6

  c) 4

  d) 3

  d) 3


What male sexual disorders effect orgasm?

Delayed ejaculation Premature ejaculation


Define Gender

the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones)


Define Erectile disorder

the inability to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse. It's also sometimes referred to as impotence


Define Performance anxiety

the anxiety, fear, or persistent phobia which may be aroused in an individual by the requirement to perform in front of an audience, whether actually or potentially


For an individual to be diagnosed with sexual dysfunction what factors must be present?

- Sexual dysfunction during 75% of sexual experiences for at least 6 months - Cause clinically significant distress - It must not be due to a medical condition/other psychological illness


Define Premature ejaculation

a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about one minute of vaginal penetration


The DSM-5 includes __________ orgasmic disorders for men.

  a) 3

  b) 2

  c) 4

  d) 1

  b) 2


Define Female orgasmic disorder

the difficulty or inability for a woman to reach orgasm during sexual stimulation


What other disorders often coexist in individuals with exhibitionistic disorder?

Voyeuristic Frotteuristic


What male sexual disorders effect interest, desire and arousal?

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder Erectile disorder


What are the different types of paedophilic cognitive distortions?

Misattributing blame - "she started by being too cuddly" Denying sexual intent - "I was just teaching her about sex... better from her father than from someone else" Debasing the victim - "She'd had sex before with her boyfriend" Minimising consequences - "She has always been friendly to me, even afterwards" Deflecting censure - "This happened years ago. Why can't everyone forget about it?" Victim empathy deficits - "He wasn't crying or anything, so what's the problem"


Which factor may explain why alcohol use is often associated with the paraphilias?

  a) Alcohol decreases the ability to inhibit impulses.

  b) People are more likely to engage in paraphilic behavior at bars.

  c) Alcohol deactivates the pleasure center of the brain.

  d) Alcohol leads to increased hormone levels and sexual arousal.

  a) Alcohol decreases the ability to inhibit impulses.


What other factors are considered when assessing someone with a sexual dysfunction?

Partner factors Relationship factors Individual vulnerability factors Cultural/religious factors Medical factors


What biological factors can contribute to sexual dysfunction?

Organic problems - Neurological (e.g. MS), diabetes - Anxiety associated with cardiovascular disease Prescription medication - Antihypertensives, anxiolytics, antidepressants Illicit drugs - Marijuana, opiates, cocaine Alcohol Smoking


What are the developmental and psychological factors for paraphilias?

Disordered relationships during childhood/adolescence Physical or sexual abuse Operant conditioning OCD Cognitive distortions/unwarranted beliefs


Define Transvestic disorder

recurrent and intense sexual arousal from cross-dressing, which may manifest as fantasies, urges, or behaviors


True or False: Frotteuristic disorder is more common in females



Define Fetishistic disorder

the eroticization of nonliving objects and/or body parts for sexual gratification


Define Paraphilic disorders

the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals


What factors must be considered when determining whether sexual behaviour is "normal"?

Time Place Gender Culture


Define Schema therapy

an integrative approach to treatment that has shown remarkable results in helping people to change negative ("maladaptive") patterns which they have lived with for a long time


What are cognitive distortions?

Excuses for the behaviour that occur after the fact


Define Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

a persistent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty


What factors increases the likelihood of a victim of paedophilia developing a mental disorder?

Perpetrator threatens child Child blames him/herself Unsupportive family Young age Involved intercourse


Define Gender dysphoria

the condition of feeling one's emotional and psychological identity as male or female to be opposite to one's biological sex


What other disorders often coexist in individuals with fetishistic disorder?

Pedophilia Sadism Masochism


True or False: Any male can become aroused by erotic pictures of children



What are the 4 phases in both Masters & Johnson's and the Kaplan model of arousal?

Desire phase Excitement phase Orgasmic phase Resolution phase


Female orgasmic disorder is diagnosed when

  a) women are not able to reach orgasm during 75% or more of sexual encounters.

  b) the inability to reach orgasm is troubling and persistent.

  c) women are not able to reach orgasm during 50% or more of sexual encounters.

  d) women have little to no desire to reach orgasm.

  b) the inability to reach orgasm is troubling and persistent.


What social and cultural factors can contribute to sexual dysfunction?

- Cultural and religious influences most common cause - Significant negative or traumatic event - Marked deterioration in close interpersonal relationships - Sexual inexperience


In the DSM-5, the __________, are a group of disorders defined by sexual attraction to unusual objects or sexual activities.

  a) fetishes

  b) pedophiles

  c) paraphilias

  d) sex addictions

  c) paraphilias


What is the difference between males and females in terms of patterns of arousal?

Men have a narrow arousal pattern whereas females tend to have a broader and more fluid arousal pattern


Typically, men who commit incest abuse their __________ daughters, whereas men with non-incestual pedophilia usually are interested in __________ children.

  a) step; other

  b) prepubertal; postpubertal

  c) postpubertal; prepubertal

  d) biological; neighborhood

  c) postpubertal; prepubertal


Which device measures changes in the circumference of the penis?

  a) Penile polygraph

  b) Penile probe

  c) Penile plethysmograph

  d) Penile perimonitor

  c) Penile plethysmograph


What four specifiers are used to designate onset of the sexual dysfunction?

Lifelong Acquired Generalised Situational


Research has found that rates of premature ejaculation are doubled when there is a history of

  a) alcoholism.

  b) depression.

  c) childhood sexual abuse.

  d) serious medical illness.

  c) childhood sexual abuse.


Define Exhibitionistic disorder

a condition marked by the urge, fantasy, or behavior of exposing one’s genitals to non-consenting people, particularly strangers for sexual gratification


What female sexual disorders effect orgasm?

Female orgasmic disorder


Define Sexual dysfunction

a problem occurring during any phase of the sexual response cycle that prevents the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. The sexual response cycle traditionally includes excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution


What treatments are used to treat paraphilias?

Cognitive behaviour therapy - Aversion therapy, improve social skills, impuse control, emptahy Rescripting fantasy - Associating a normal fantasy with climax Castration - Physical and chemical Medication


Define Frotteuristic disorder

a disorder characterised by the urge, fantasy or the act of touching or rubbing one's genitals up against another person in a sexual manner without their consent


Define Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder

a condition in which people experience difficulty having intercourse and feel significant pain upon penetration


What female sexual disorders effect pain

Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder


Define Sexual masochism disorder

a disorder in which individuals use sexual fantasies, urges or behaviors involving the act (real, not simulated) of being humiliated, beaten or otherwise made to suffer in order to achieve sexual excitement and climax


Define Aversion therapy

a type of behaviour therapy designed to make patients give up an undesirable habit by causing them to associate it with an unpleasant effect


Define Voyeuristic disorder

a psychosexual disorder in which a person derives sexual pleasure and gratification from looking at the naked bodies and genital organs or observing the sexual acts of others


Define Paedophilic disorder

a paraphilia involving intense and recurrent sexual urges towards and fantasies about prepubescent children that have either been acted upon or which cause the person with the attraction distress or interpersonal difficulty


Define Sexual sadism disorder

the condition of experiencing sexual arousal in response to the extreme pain, suffering or humiliation of others


Define Cognitive behavioural therapy

a type of psychotherapy in which negative patterns of thought about the self and the world are challenged in order to alter unwanted behaviour patterns or treat mood disorders such as depression


Define Autogynephilia

a man's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman


What are the biological factors for paraphilias?

Genetic predisposition Excess levels of male hormones Neurological differences


Define Vascular

relating to, affecting, or consisting of a vessel or vessels, especially those which carry blood


Define Female sexual interest/arousal disorder

a disorder characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain sexual arousal or to maintain arousal until the completion of a sexual activity


True or False: Individuals with exhibitionistic disorder are never remorseful about their actions



If an individual that is depressed and also experiencing difficulty maintaining an erection what is the course of action?

The individual's depression will be treated first in the hope that the sexual dysfunction is a symptom. If the sexual dysfunction is separate the individual will also be treated for that


Masters and Johnson identified two variables that they believed to be involved in the etiology of sexual dysfunctions, which they called

  a) performance deficits and adopting a participant role.

  b) insecurity and reinforcement of undesirability.

  c) inflated self-esteem and reinforcement of undesirability.

  d) performance fears and adopting a spectator role.

  d) performance fears and adopting a spectator role.


Which team revolutionized the research on human sexuality when they began to gather direct observations and physiological measurements of people engaged in sexual activity?

  a) Kaplan and Kinsey

  b) Masters and Johnson

  c) Masters and Kaplan

  d) Johnson and Kinsey

  b) Masters and Johnson


Define Positive feedback

the enhancing or amplification of an effect by its own influence on the process which gives rise to it