Flashcards in Sexual Dysfunction Deck (56):
the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition
A form of sexual masochism in which oxygen flow to the brain is reduced, as by controlled strangulation or suffocation, in order to enhance the pleasure of masturbation
a man's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman
Define Aversion therapy
a type of behaviour therapy designed to make patients give up an undesirable habit by causing them to associate it with an unpleasant effect
Define Cognitive behavioural therapy
a type of psychotherapy in which negative patterns of thought about the self and the world are challenged in order to alter unwanted behaviour patterns or treat mood disorders such as depression
Define Delayed ejaculation
a common medical condition where it takes a prolonged period of sexual stimulation for a man to ejaculate. In some cases, ejaculation cannot be achieved at all
Define Erectile disorder
the inability to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse. It's also sometimes referred to as impotence
Define Exhibitionistic disorder
a condition marked by the urge, fantasy, or behavior of exposing one’s genitals to non-consenting people, particularly strangers for sexual gratification
Define Female orgasmic disorder
the difficulty or inability for a woman to reach orgasm during sexual stimulation
Define Fetishistic disorder
the eroticization of nonliving objects and/or body parts for sexual gratification
Define Frotteuristic disorder
a disorder characterised by the urge, fantasy or the act of touching or rubbing one's genitals up against another person in a sexual manner without their consent
the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones)
Define Gender dysphoria
the condition of feeling one's emotional and psychological identity as male or female to be opposite to one's biological sex
Define Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder
a condition in which people experience difficulty having intercourse and feel significant pain upon penetration
Define Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
a persistent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty
Define Paraphilic disorders
the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals
Define Paedophilic disorder
a paraphilia involving intense and recurrent sexual urges towards and fantasies about prepubescent children that have either been acted upon or which cause the person with the attraction distress or interpersonal difficulty
Define Performance anxiety
the anxiety, fear, or persistent phobia which may be aroused in an individual by the requirement to perform in front of an audience, whether actually or potentially
Define Positive feedback
the enhancing or amplification of an effect by its own influence on the process which gives rise to it
Define Premature ejaculation
a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about one minute of vaginal penetration
Define Schema therapy
an integrative approach to treatment that has shown remarkable results in helping people to change negative ("maladaptive") patterns which they have lived with for a long time
Define Sexual dysfunction
a problem occurring during any phase of the sexual response cycle that prevents the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. The sexual response cycle traditionally includes excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
Define Sexual masochism disorder
a disorder in which individuals use sexual fantasies, urges or behaviors involving the act (real, not simulated) of being humiliated, beaten or otherwise made to suffer in order to achieve sexual excitement and climax
Define Sexual sadism disorder
the condition of experiencing sexual arousal in response to the extreme pain, suffering or humiliation of others
Define Transvestic disorder
recurrent and intense sexual arousal from cross-dressing, which may manifest as fantasies, urges, or behaviors
relating to, affecting, or consisting of a vessel or vessels, especially those which carry blood
Define Voyeuristic disorder
a psychosexual disorder in which a person derives sexual pleasure and gratification from looking at the naked bodies and genital organs or observing the sexual acts of others
Define Female sexual interest/arousal disorder
a disorder characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain sexual arousal or to maintain arousal until the completion of a sexual activity
What factors must be considered when determining whether sexual behaviour is "normal"?
What is the difference between males and females in terms of patterns of arousal?
Men have a narrow arousal pattern whereas females tend to have a broader and more fluid arousal pattern
Why are there difficulties defining what is normal sexual behaviour?
Over-reliance on self-reports and clinical impressions
Extensive use of clinical groups without using non-clinical controls
What are the 4 phases in both Masters & Johnson's and the Kaplan model of arousal?
What male sexual disorders effect interest, desire and arousal?
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
What female sexual disorders effect interest, desire and arousal?
Female sexual interest/arousal disorder
What male sexual disorders effect orgasm?
What female sexual disorders effect orgasm?
Female orgasmic disorder
What female sexual disorders effect pain
Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder
For an individual to be diagnosed with sexual dysfunction what factors must be present?
- Sexual dysfunction during 75% of sexual experiences for at least 6 months
- Cause clinically significant distress
- It must not be due to a medical condition/other psychological illness
If an individual that is depressed and also experiencing difficulty maintaining an erection what is the course of action?
The individual's depression will be treated first in the hope that the sexual dysfunction is a symptom. If the sexual dysfunction is separate the individual will also be treated for that
What four specifiers are used to designate onset of the sexual dysfunction?
What other factors are considered when assessing someone with a sexual dysfunction?
Individual vulnerability factors
What biological factors can contribute to sexual dysfunction?
- Neurological (e.g. MS), diabetes
- Anxiety associated with cardiovascular disease
- Antihypertensives, anxiolytics, antidepressants
- Marijuana, opiates, cocaine
What social and cultural factors can contribute to sexual dysfunction?
- Cultural and religious influences most common cause
- Significant negative or traumatic event
- Marked deterioration in close interpersonal relationships
- Sexual inexperience
What are the possible treatments of sexual dysfunction?
- Providing basic education about sexual functioning
- Dynamic (couples) therapy
- Eliminating psychologically based performance anxiety
- Medication and physical treatments
What other disorders often coexist in individuals with fetishistic disorder?
What other disorders often coexist in individuals with transvestic disorder?
What other disorders often coexist in individuals with exhibitionistic disorder?
True or False:
Individuals with exhibitionistic disorder are never remorseful about their actions
True or False:
Frotteuristic disorder is more common in females
True or False:
Any male can become aroused by erotic pictures of children
What are cognitive distortions?
Excuses for the behaviour that occur after the fact
What are the different types of paedophilic cognitive distortions?
- "she started by being too cuddly"
Denying sexual intent
- "I was just teaching her about sex... better from her father than from someone else"
Debasing the victim
- "She'd had sex before with her boyfriend"
- "She has always been friendly to me, even afterwards"
- "This happened years ago. Why can't everyone forget about it?"
Victim empathy deficits
- "He wasn't crying or anything, so what's the problem"
What factors increases the likelihood of a victim of paedophilia developing a mental disorder?
Perpetrator threatens child
Child blames him/herself
What are the biological factors for paraphilias?
Excess levels of male hormones
What are the developmental and psychological factors for paraphilias?
Disordered relationships during childhood/adolescence
Physical or sexual abuse
Cognitive distortions/unwarranted beliefs