Flashcards in Diagnostic lab equipment Deck (24)
Name different types of diagnostic lab equipment
Compound light microscope.
Centrifuge / stat spin.
Biochemistry analyser (Idexx Vet test / Calalyst one).
Haematology analyser (Idexx ProCyte / LaserCyte).
Blood gas and/ or electrolyte machine (Vetstat).
Describe a compound light microscope
This is an essential piece of lab equipment that is commonly used for disease diagnosis.
The microscope uses lenses and light to magnify the image to allow visualisation and identification.
Can have one (Monocular) or two (binocular) eye pieces.
Commonly there are 3-4 objective lenses allowing varying degrees of image magnification.
Describe objective lenses
X 4 A main scanning lens ( not all microscopes are fitted with this lens). Allows detailed visualisation of macroscopic objects and overall scanning of the slide.
X 10 Low power objective. Used for locating area of interest.
X 40 High power -A dry lens used for more detailed focusing
Describe oil immersion lens (x100)
X 100 Oil Immersion -A powerful lens which uses light refracted through an oil layer rather than through air.
Only lens that should be used for oil immersion.
This lens is commonly longer in length than other lenses, care should be taken when moving it into place, to avoid damage to the slide or lens.
Describe the battlement technique
The slide is examined systematically to ensure all of the slide is covered and to prevent double counting of cells.
Two fields up, two fields along and two fields down
Describe the vernier scale
Positioned on the horizontal and vertical axis of the stage.
Allows relocation of a particular point on a microscope slide.
Main scale divided into millimetres.
Vernier plate divided into 10 divisions
When record your reading it is important to note the position of label on slide (right or left)
It is important to record the co-ordinates of the object using BOTH X axis (left to right) and Y axis (top to bottom) readings
If slide has been sent to referral lab, co-ordinates for upper right corner or lower left corner of coverslip should also be noted.
What is a centrifuge?
The centrifuge spins a substance at high speed using centrifugal force to separate the fluid portion (supernatant) from the solid portion (sediment).
An electric motor rotates at high speed around a fixed axis applying perpendicular force to the axis
What are the two types of centrifuge?
Describe a swinging arm centrifuge
This has moveable specimen cups that are suspended vertically from arms. As the rotor speed increases the cups swing out into horizontal position.
This results in supernatant that is uniformly distributed therefore easy to remove with pipette.
Limitations include heat build up at high speeds than can damage sample
Some, larger centrifuges have in built temperature control (4°C optimum for fluid separation)
Describe an angled head centrifuge
Tubes are positioned at 25-40 degree angle within centrifuge.
Supernatant collects at an angle so more difficult to collect
Higher speeds can be achieved.
Describe the incubator
Predominantly used for incubation of samples for bacterial culture
Double walled metal container with insulation material e.g. fibreglass between the two
Double insulated doors; inner glass and outer metal allow contents of incubator to be viewed without heat loss from cabinet.
Electrical heating element inside cabinet
Temps range from 25-100°C, usually maintained at 37 ̊̊C
Wire shelves allow air circulation
Thermostat is used in conjunction with an internal thermometer to ensure the appropriate temperature is maintained.
Plates placed lid side down on wire shelves to reduce condensation on agar surface.
Incubators require annual servicing and cleaning should take place daily.
Why might a bunsen burner be used?
During preparation of agar plate for bacterial culture (loop sterilisation)
Fixing bacteria on microscope slide prior to staining
Heating liquid in a glass beaker
The change of velocity and resulting bending of light as it passes from one medium to another with different optical density e.g. air into urine
What is a refractometer?
Cylindrical instrument with prism and calibration scale
Measures Specific gravity of urine and other fluids
Measures protein concentration of plasma and other fluids (grams/deciliter g/dl)
Describe the use of a refractometer
MUST be calibrated before EVERY use, using distilled water.
The reading is taken on the graduated Sg scale at the blue/white line interface
Units are temperature compensated (between 60-100°C), therefore, temperature fluctuations are unlike to affect results.
Precise, accurate, durable, easy to use, cheap to buy and only small volume of sample required to achieve result.
What are the advantages of a glucometer?
Fast, reliable and accurate method of blood glucose level examination.
Small drop of sample required.
Minimal trauma for patient.
Allows regular and accurate blood glucose measurements to be obtained.
Describe commercial test kits
In house serology test kits
Reliable, easy to use and immediate results
Test for infectious disease antigens and antibodies, hormones and immunoglobulin levels
Predominantly ELISA test which are mircowell or membrane based
Immunomigration and agglutination tests also available
Describe ELISA test kits
The majority of commercial test kits use Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA technology
ELISA test wells are impregnated with appropriate antibodies for a specific antigen, depending on the disease, virus, hormone etc. being tested for.
Antibodies within the test well bind to the viral antigen present in the sample.
A dye is activated resulting in a colour change within the test well. This will indicate a positive result
What are the advantages of using an ELISA test?
Detect the presence of viral antibody or antigen.
High specificity and sensitivity associated with these tests reducing risk of inaccurate results
Eliminates requirement for expensive and time consuming viral isolation and identification providing immediate results.
What is the different between a direct and indirect ELISA test?
The direct ELISA employs antibodies to detect the presence of a particular antigen in a sample (FeLV)
The indirect ELISA is used to determine the presence of a particular antibody in a specimen such as serum (FIV) antigen v low in positive cats
Why might animals get a false positive from an ELISA test?
False positives can occur in animals that have be recently vaccinated with a live virus. The animal with carry viral antibodies but may not be not be a carrier of the actual virus
Kittens can have positive antibodies passed on from their infected mother , however, they may not have the disease
What should positive FELV tests be supported by?
immunofluorescent antibody assay
Describe a urine dipstick
Urinalysis reagents strips e.g. Dipstix, Multistix, BM-Test-8.
Used to test urine biochemistry e.g. protein, glucose, ketones, blood, pH, Nitrites, Specific gravity, urobilinogen and bilirubin.
Inaccurate results can commonly occur if test strips have passed expiry date or patient has received drug therapy.
Designed to measure human urine parameters (S.g. normally inaccurate)