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Flashcards in Urinanalysis Deck (45)
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1

Define micurate

to urinate

2

Define polyuria

Excessive urine production

3

Define oliguria

Reduced urine output

4

Define anuria

Complete suppression of urine production

5

Define dysuria/stranguria

Painful or difficult urination

6

Define proteinuria

Protein in the urine

7

Define Urolithiasis

Uroliths/urinary crystals present

8

Define haematuria

Blood in the urine

9

Define glucosuria

Glucose in the urine

10

Name some urine sample collection methods

Natural urination (Free catch /litter tray)



Manual expression



Catheterisation



Cystocentesis

11

What equipment do you need for the free catch method?

Gloves

Commercial, sterile urine collection kit e.g. Uripet OR clean container e.g. Kidney dish

Clean, sterilised litter pan

Commercial, sterile, non absorbable cat litter e.g. Katkor

Sterile universal container

12

What are the advantages of the free catch method?

Non traumatic



Quick and easy



Cheap



Non invasive



Client can obtain sample if given correct instructions

13

What are the disadvantages of the free catch method?

Poor patient compliance (can be time consuming)



Mid steam sample difficult in female dogs



Sample contamination – non sterile



Only small amount of urine passed may result in insufficient sample obtained

Cat litter may become contaminated if the cat defaecates

14

What equipment do you need for manual expression?

Gloves



A form of restraint – Second helper, Manual aids, or sedative



Commercial, sterile urine collection kit e.g. Uripet OR clean container e.g. Kidney dish



Sterile universal container

15

What are the advantages of manual expression?

Relatively simple method of urine collection in an unconscious patient



Minimally traumatic if patient relaxed



Non invasive



Cheap if no requirement for sedation

16

What are the disadvantages of manual expression?

A non sterile sample will be obtained

Can be difficult to isolate bladder if insufficient urine or large abdomen

Strong resistance may be encountered in conscious patients

Risk of bladder rupture if undue pressure is exerted, or if urethral blockage is present

Can be distressing for patient

17

What equipment do you need for urinary catheterisation?

Sterile gloves

Assistant to restrain patient

Sterile 10-20ml syringe

Sterile water soluble lubricant

Adequately sized urinary catheter

A sedative may be required

Sterile container

18

What are the advantages of urinary catheterisation?

Bladder does not have to be distended to sample



Quick and easy technique in male patients



Other tests may be carried out on the bladder at the same time e.g. Radiographic contrast studies

19

What are the disadvantages of urinary catheterisation?

Causes discomfort to the patient so commonly carried out under sedation or GA, but can be performed conscious



Skilled technique that more difficult in female patients



Risk of urological infection



Risk of urethral or bladder wall damage



Although the external genital area and distal urethral opening are aseptically prepared, contamination of the sample will still occur

20

Describe cystocentesis

Gold standard method for sterile sampling



Aseptic introduction of needle through abdominal wall into bladder



MUST be performed by a vet as involves entering a body cavity



Commonly used in cats



Sedation is not commonly required

21

What equipment do you need for cystocentesis?

Electric clippers



Detergent scrub

e.g. Chlorhexidine



Surgical spirit



Sterile gloves



Sterile hypodermic needle



Sterile 10ml syringe

22

What are the advantages of cystocentesis?

Quick


Inexpensive, if sedation not required


Sterile sample


No urethral contamination


Infection uncommon



Preferred method for bacterial culture

23

What are the disadvantages of cystocentesis?

Can be stressful and painful for the patient


Sedation or GA may be required


Skilled technique, training required prior to performing


Risk of internal damage of the bladder or other organs


This technique can result in a false positive for haematuria

24

Describe urine storage and preservation

Label the sample immediately

Examine the sample within 30mins of collection

Refrigerate @ 4-8°c for no longer than 6 hrs

Urine can be frozen for delayed chemical analysis, but this process will destroy cellular content

Examine samples at room temperature

25

Example why preservation of urinary samples is vital

Bacteria growth will begin to occur as soon as the urine is voided, this will result in breakdown of urea and production of ammonia.



This process increases the urinary pH to alkaline, which leads to precipitation of phosphates within the sample.



Samples examined more than 30mins after collect may contain erroneous phosphate crystals (Struvites).

26

Name different types of preservatives and when you would use them

Boric acid (Red top) (0.5g/28ml urine, analyse within 8hrs) – culture



Tolulene - Chemistry



Formalin 10 % (1 drop to 2.5ml urine) - Cytology



Thymol (1mg/ml urine) - Chemistry

27

How long can urine preservatives prevent bacterial growth or chemical decomposition for?

up to 2 days

28

How should preserved samples be stored?

room temperature

29

What three properties should be looked at during an urinary examination?

Physical

Chemical

Microscopic

30

Describe physical properties

Colour



Odour



Turbidity



pH



Specific Gravity



A change in physical properties of the urine may indicate clinical illness