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Nursing support for disease diagnosis > Skin and hair > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin and hair Deck (42)
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1

Why might a vet perform a dermatology exam?

Ecto-parasites

Skin lesions

Pruritis

Neoplasia

Chronic dermatitis

Erythema

2

Describe patient preparation for dermatology exams

Skin/hair ample should be performed prior to administration of drug therapy if possible

Ideally, patient should be 'drug free' for a 7-10 day period prior to sampling

Patients should be suitably restrained but handled by as few staff as possible

Patients skin should NOT be clipped, scrubbed or washed prior to obtaining sample

3

Consider healthy and safety for a dermatology exam

Potential risk of zoonosis and cross contamination so PPE very important- clients should also be aware

Equipment and surfaces thoroughly disinfected and sterilised after use and dispose of used single used equipment

4

Describe dermatitis

Reddening and swelling of the skin from direct irritation by an external agent or allergen

5

Describe lesions

Tissue abnormality commonly caused by disease or trauma

6

Describe a rash

Widespread eruption of lesions

7

Describe erythema

Reddening of the skin due to increased blood supply

8

Describe a skin cyst

A papule containing fluid of semi solid material e.g. epidermoid and pilar cysts

9

Describe pyoderma

Primary skin infection, commonly staphylococcal or streptococcal

10

Describe a papule

Small, palpable lesion, raised above the skin

11

Describe a pustule

Purulent vesicle (pus filled sac)

12

Describe plaque

Palpable, flat lesion, greater than 0.5mm in diameter

13

Describe atopy

Localised hypersensitivity reaction to an allergen

14

Describe lichenification

Seen with chronic atopy

15

Describe alopecia

Hair loss

16

Name skin sampling techniques

Skin scrapes

Hair brushing

Cytaneous cytology
-Tape impressions
-Hair plucks
-Swabs

Skin biopsy

17

What are the advantages of a skin scrape?

Quick and easy

Generally painless

Often examined in house

Minimal trauma

RVN can perform under vet instruction

Sedation not normally required

Allows examination of full thickness of epidermis and hair follicles

Used to detect cuticular and sub-cuticular parasites

18

Describe a superficial skin scrape?

When should you do one?

Superficial skin scrape that does not enter the epidermal layer of the skin

One every patient with scaly or pruritic skin

19

What may you find from a superficial skin scrape?

Sarcoptes scabeii

Cheyletiella sp.

Notoedres cati.

Dermatophyte spore infested hair shaft

Lice

20

Describe sarcoptes spp.

Intensley itchy, highly contagious and zoonotic mite is transmitted via direct contact

Lesions develop over ventral chest and abdomen, elbows, leg and ears

21

How else could you test for sarcoptes spp.?

Sarcoptes antibodies can be detected using ELISA technology

22

Describe a deep skin scrape

When should you do one?

Allows collection of sample from air follicle, results in light capillary ooze. Squeeze the skin prior to sampling

When should I do it?
Non-inflammatory and inflammatory alopecia
Pustules
Crusts

23

What might a deep skin scrape find?

Demodex sp.

24

How would you choose a sampling site for a deep skin scrape?

Head, eats and feet are commonly affected

Areas of erythematous skin

Papules, scales or crusts

Areas of alopecia

25

Describe demodex

A mite that often presents with hair loss beneath or around the eyes

In severe cases, the whole body is affected

Not pruritic but secondary pyoderma is

26

What are the advantages of hair brushing?

Quick and easy

No sedation required

Patient enjoys

Can be examined in house

RVN can perform under vet instruction

Non traumatic

Inexpensive

Allows collection of cutaneous parasites

27

When should you do a hair brushing sample?

Generally itchy patients

Patients with suspected flea infestation

Patients with excess scurf

28

What might a hair brushing sample find?

Ctenocephalides

Flea excrete/debris

Cheyletiella sp.

Dermatophytes

29

Describe the hair brush sampling technique

Put on gloves

Stand the animal over white background i.e. white paper or tissue and restrain properly

Brush coat with fine toothed comb to collect debris

Place sample collected on the comb and any collected on the paper into a labelled, sterile container

Wetting black particles may indicate the presence of fleas if the dampened particle leaves a red mark on the paper

30

Describe the microscopic evaluation technique

Place a cover slip on to the microscope slide, over a portion of the collected sample

Examine on low power x4-x10 under the microscope using the battlement technique

Record the vernier scale, if parasite identified, to allow relocation

If large amount of hair is collected, a hand lens can be used