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Flashcards in Differential Diagnosis Deck (25):
1

DDx fever of unknown origin

Infections
Autoimmune
Neoplasm
Drug-induced (drug fever)

2

DDx back pain

Musculoskeletal
Scoliosis
Spondylolysis
Discogenic (disc herniation)
Neoplasm
Rheum (ankylosing spondylitis)
TB of spine

3

DDx abnormal uterine bleeding

Anovulatory cycles
Pregnancy
Infection
Endocrine disorder (PCOS, hypothyroid)
Hormonal contraceptives
Bleeding disorder (Von willebrands)

4

DDx syncope

Vasovagal
Orthostatic
Arrhythmia
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Prolonged QT
WPW
Ingestion
Seizures
Hypoglycemia
Electrolyte abnormalities

5

DDx stridor

Croup (laryngotracheobronchitis)
Bacterial tracheitis
Foreign body
Subglottic stenosis
Epiglottis
Tracheomalacia
Tracheal hemangioma
Vascular rings
Diphtheria
Allergic reaction

6

DDx seizures

Infections
Febrile seizures
Metabolic
Ingestion
Neoplasm
Mass lesion
Vasculitis
Autoimmune

7

List 4 common causes of dehydration

1. GI losses (diarrhea, remiss)
2. Inadequate fluid intake
3. Excessive renal losses
4. Increased insensible losses (fever, sweating, burns)

8

Ddx of apnea

1. CNS: seizure, breath holding
2. Infection: meningitis, bronchiolitis, sepsis, croup, infant botulism, pertussis
3. Cardiac: arrhythmia
4. GI: reflux
5. Metabolic: hypoglycemia, inborn error of metabolism, toxin
6. Trauma: head injury accidental or nonaccidental
7. Prematurity

9

Ddx life threatening abdominal pain.

1. Appendicitis
2. Intussusception
3. Incarcerated hernia
4. Trauma
5. Tumors
6. Sepsis
7. Volvulus
8. Ectopic pregnancy
9. DKA
10. Intra-abdominal abscess
11. Aortic aneurysm
12. Toxic ingestion (iron, lead, aspirin)

10

Ddx altered mental status

1. Dehydration
2. Ingestion
3. Trauma
4. Hypoxia or hyperthermia
5. intussusception
6. Brain mass
7. Occult trauma
8. Postictal
9. VP shunt problem
10. Meningitis or encephalitis
11. Metabolic (hypoglycemia, etc)
12. Reyes syndrome, rarities
13. CVA
14. HUS (2/2 uremia)
15. Functional

11

Ddx of abdominal pain in children older than 3 years

1. Appendicitis
2. Mesenteric lymphadenitis
3. gastroenteritis
4. Meckel diverticulitis
5. Intestinal obstruction
6. Constipation
7. Inflammatory bowel disease
8. Biliary colic, cholecystitis
9. UTI
10. Kidney stone
11. Systemic illness (PNA, HSP, HUS, sickle cell, DM)
12. Functional abdominal pain

12

What should be added to the ddx for abdominal pain if the pt is a female teen?

1. Ovarian cyst
2. PID
3. Mittelschmerz
4. Ectopic pregnancy

13

Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in children younger than 3 years

1. NEC
2. Colic
3. Midgut volvulus
4. Intussusception
5. Gastroenteritis
6. Intestinal obstruction
7. Constipation
8. UTI

14

Ddx of cough

1. Infectious causes (URI, croup, tracheitis, bronchitis, PNA)
2. Postnasal drip from allergic rhinitis
3. Bronchospasm: asthma
4. Congenital abnormalities
5. Aspiration
6. GERD
7. Post viral infection recovery

15

Ddx sore throat

1. Pharyngitis ( group a strep, EBV, adenovirus, coxsackie virus's HSV, rhinovirus)
2. RPA
3. Lateral neck or para pharyngeal abscess
4. Peritonsillar abscess
5. Epiglottitis
6. Bacterial tracheitis

16

Ddx of vomiting in children from birth-2 months

1.allergic colitis
2. Anatomical abnormalities of GI tract
3. GERD
4. Increased intracranial pressure
5. Malformation with volvulus
6. Meconium ileus
7. NEC
8. Over feeding
9. Pyloric stenosis

17

Ddx vomiting age 2-5 years

1. Gastroenteritis
2. Intussussception
3. Posttusive
4. Head trauma
5. Brain tumor
6. DKA
7. Incarcerated hernia
8. Foreign body
9. Pyelonephritis

18

Ddx vomiting age 6 years or older

1. Adhesions (previous surgery)
2. Appendicitis
3. Cholecystitis
4. Hepatitis
5. IBD
6. Intoxication
7. Migraine
8. Ovarian torsion
9. Pancreatitis
10. Peptic ulcer disease
11. Pregnancy

19

Ddx wheezing

1. RAD
2. RSV bronchiolitis
3. Other infections
4. Anaphylaxis or other response to environmental allergens
5. Foreign body
6. Aspiration.
7. Congenital anomalies

20

Ddx ALTE

1. Idiopathic
2. GERD
3. Seizure
4. Sepsis or infection
5. Cardiac disease (arrhythmia)
6. Breath holding spell
7. Upper airway obstruction
8. Metabolic disorder
9. NAT
10. Munchasen by proxy

21

Ddx irritability

1. Infection
2. Trauma (shaken baby, subdural hematoma, fracture, corneal abrasion, hair tourniquet
3. Medications
4.colic
5. GI problems (constipation, milk protein allergy, hernia, intussuception, volvulus)
6. CNS problems (meningitis, etc)
7. Metabolic disorders
8. Toxins

22

Ddx lethargy

1. Seizures
2. Increased ICP
3. Trauma
4. Ingestion
5. Sleep disorder
6. Infection
7. Vascular
8. Kidney or liver disorders

23

Ddx ALTE

1. CNS (seizure)
2. Apnea of infancy/ breath holding spells
3. Metabolic
4. Cardiovascular (CHD, arrhythmia)
5. Infection (meningitis, sepsis, UTI)
6. Medications
7. GI (reflux, aspiration, intussuception, volvulus)
8. Respiratory (infection, aspiration, foreign body, airway anomaly)
9. NAT

24

Ddx of bradycardia

1. Hypoxemia
2. Acidosis
3. Intracranial hypertension
4. Primary heart condition
5. Toxins
6. Eating disorder

25

DDx chest pain

1. Cardiac causes (ischemia, infections, arrhythmia
2. Musculoskeletal ( muscle strain, costochondritis, trauma)
3. Respiratory. (Pna, asthma, ptx, pe)
4. GI ( gerd, FB, esophagitis)
5. Anxiety
6. Precordial catch
7. Breast disorder