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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (17):
0

Name some good sources of folate

Green leafy vegetables
Orange juice and citrus fruits
Legumes
Fortified grains

1

Name some good diet sources of iron

Human milk (for first 6 months)
Iron fortified formula
Fortified cereals
Meat, chicken, fish
Legumes
Spinach

2

When are birth stores of iron depleted by?

6 months

If breast fed need to start iron fortified cereals

3

What are some consequences of iron deficiency?

Impaired growth
Anemia (ages 6-24 months)
Delayed cognitive development
delayed speech

4

Name 5 nutrients important for brain growth

DHA
Choline
Taurine
Iron
Folate

5

How do you interpret BMI < 5%

Underweight

6

Define growth faltering

Child with observed growth over time with any of the following:
-wt below 2% for gestation corrected and sex on more than 1 occasion
-wt < 80% ideal body weight
-rate of wt gain causes a decrease of 2 or more major percentile lines over time
-no wt gain if < 12 months old
-significant wt loss if < 2 years
-loss of developmental milestones with wt or length plateau
-greater than 5% wt loss in 2 weeks or during hospitalization

7

Define weight faltering (wasting). What does it imply?

-wt crossing > 2 major percentiles
-rate of wt gain < normal for age
-weight/length < 5%

Wt faltering implies acute under nutrition, esp inadequate calorie intake

8

What's the normal range of daily weight gain during 1st 3 years?

0-3 months: 30 g/day
3-6 months: 15 g/day
6-9 months: 10-15 g/day
9-12 months: 10 g/day
12-36 months: 6 g/day

9

What does linear growth faltering (stunting) imply?

Implies chronic undernutrition but could also be:
-endocrinopathy
-IUGR
-constitutional
-GI
-chronic illness

Differentiate short w/ appropriate wt vs short and skinny

10

What are the Waterlow criteria?

Way to classify undernutrition severity based on % ideal body weight

11

Describe the components of a growth problem assessment

1. History
-nutritional
-medical
2. Anthropometry (growth measurements)
3. Physical exam
4. Lab eval

12

What are the components of a nutrition history?

1. Early feeding (any hex breast feeding, formula)
2. Intro of solids (when, easy or hard)
3. Intro of self feeding (any hx of forced feed)
4. Intake (types, amounts, variety)
5. Routines (high chair, grazing, duration, stress at meals, tv/ distractions)
6. Intolerance (GERD, abd pain, rashes, allergies, vomiting)

13

What are the 3 potential problems in growth faltering?

1. Inadequate intake
2. Increased losses ( ex malabsorption)
3. High requirements

14

Describe 3 major categories of environmental/social/ behavioral issues associated with growth faltering

1. Nutritional ignorance
-inadequate amounts,types, unusual diets, perceived allergies, health food beliefs
2. Family chaos
-inconsistent feeding/grazing, no meal routines, unstable home environment
3. Child/parent conflict
-child turns parent into short order cook, poor limit setting, tv on during meals, force feeding

15

What do you focus on during physical exam for nutrition

-wasting of fat vs muscle mass
-organomegaly, distended abd
-murmur
-developmental delay, neuro
-oral motor control, observed feeding
-signs micronutrient def ( rash, decreased DTRs, edema)

16

What are some ways to boost caloric intake?

-concentrate formula
-fortify breastmilk
-add carnation instant breakfast to milk
-eat energy dense foods
-add butter, cheese, cream cheese, oils to foods (ex vegetables)
-supplements (pediasure)