Flashcards in Direct treatment approaches for Dementia Deck (11):
Direct interventions are those in which the SLP provides individual or group therapy.
“Indirect interventions are those in which the physical and/or linguistic environments are modified to support communication...”
Guidelines of direct intervention
- Strengthen the knowledge and processes that have the potential to improve.
- Reduce demands on impaired cognitive systems.
- Increase reliance on spared cognitive systems.
- Provide stimuli that evoke positive fact memory, action, and emotion.
Types of Direct Interventions
- Spaced Retrieval Training (SRT)
- Montesorri-based Activities
- Memory Wallets and Books
Spaced Retrieval Training 1
- “Spaced Retrieval Training (SRT) is a shaping procedure in which an individual is asked to recall information over increasingly longer intervals of time.”
- Target, number of trials, and interval length are controlled by the clinician.
- SRT can be done throughout the day by the clinician, caregivers, and family.
- When a patient is able to successfully recall a piece of information, the interval preceding the next recall test is increased.
- If the patient cannot successfully recall information, he or she is given the correct answer, asked to repeat it, and the interval time is decreased.
- SRT relies on spared nondeclarative memory in dementia patients. The patient may not remember the event of learning, but will still be able to learn and recall associations.
- Cueing is discouraged and each interval must end with a correct recall.
It stimulates recall. When individuals with dementia and healthy adults are presented with pictures, newspaper articles...and props associated with a theme, their personal experiences related to the theme come to mind.”
- It is recommended to use all the senses to trigger memory.
- Good reminiscence therapy sessions require planning. The clinician should take time to choose props or activities that will be relevant to the patient as well as a list of questions to probe for the less obvious recollections.
- Can be done in a group!
Suggested activities for reminiscence therapy
- Personal milestones/events (marriage, retirement, birth of a grandchild, etc.)
- World events
- National or cultural traditions
- Food preparation
- “The defining principles of the Montessori method are: having choices, purposeful experience, multi-sensory experience, action-oriented, and incremental learning.”
- Patients who participate in Montessori-based activities are more attentive than when they participate in passive events like watching an event.
- Montessori-based activities can be used in individual sessions as well as groups of varying size.
Examples of Montessori/Multimodal
- Examples of Montessori-based activities are:
--- Picture sorting by category (animals, colors, facial expressions, etc.)
--- Word sorting
--- Memory bingo