HIV/AIDS Flashcards Preview

Cognitive > HIV/AIDS > Flashcards

Flashcards in HIV/AIDS Deck (12):
1

HIV

- human immunodeficiency virus

- virus that causes AIDS

- HIV+ does not mean AIDS

2

AIDS

- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

- final stages of HIV infection

- AIDS does mean HIV+

3

HIV Transmission

- unprotected sexual intercourse

- sharing needles/syringes

- cuts/injuries from sharp instruments (scalpel)

- prenatal/perinatal transmission (1/3 of all HIV+ women)

- blood transfusion (1985 mandate; routine screening)- no longer a problem

- HIV is not transmitted via food, air, or casual contact

4

The Immune System

- described as a constellation of responses to attack from outside the body (antigens)

- antigens: any substance that elicits an immune response

- antigen-specific response: recognize and act against particular antigens

- system response: not confined to the initial site of infection but works throughout the body

- memory: recognize and mounts stronger subsequent attacks

5

Adaptive Immune System

- natural immune system protects the body for a few days secondary to its nonspecific antigen focus

- the adaptive immune system defends and protects from infection and foreign invaders; has the capability to call upon other aspects of the immune system to complete specific tasks

- the adaptive immune cells develop in the thymus and the bone marrow and then congregate in the lymph nodes moving throughout the body via the blood and lymphatic streams

6

The blood system

- humans possess approximately 5 liters of blood

- all blood cells are manufactured by stem cells found in the bone marrow; stem cells produce hemocytoblasts

- hemocytoblasts mature into: red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes)

- leukocytes are comprised of several differing subtypes one of which includes the lymphocytes; the two primary lymphocytes are B-cells and T-cells

7

The lymphatic system

- lymph nodes are filters that attempt to identify antigens; that is why they become edematous when we are sick (persistent generalized lymphadenopathy or PGL)

- the lymphocytes that manage and execute all activities of the adaptive immune system are the B-cells and the T-cells

- B-cells recognize the presence of antigens and then acts per the activation signal by releasing antibodies

- T-cells (various categories specifically CD-4 T-cells); detects antigen presence but kills antigen itself; does not use antibodies

8

HIV Presence

- HIV attacks the CD-4 T-cells and kills them

- CD-4 T-cells send activation signals to the B-cells

- because the CD-4 T-cells are unable to activate the B-cells, the pt with HIV is susceptible to a host of other infections and diseases

9

HAND or ADC 1

- HIV associated neurocognitive decline/disorder

- AIDS dementia complex

- essential features: disabling cognitive impairment with motor dysfunction, speech problems, and behavioral change

- cognition: mental slowness, memory deficits, and poor concentration

- motor: loss of fine motor skills, clumsiness, poor balance, tremors

10

HAND or ADC 2

- behavioral changes: apathy, lethargy, diminished emotional responses, and decreased spontaneity

- ADC or HAND associated with low CD4 cells; often present as the first sign of AIDS

- HAND/ADC has declined secondary to HAART or high active antiretroviral therapy; medications will only delay onset

- dementia exists when the pt’s neurocognitive impairment is severe enough with daily functions or be unable to work; social interaction

11

HAND or ADC Stages 1

- stage 0: normal mental and motor function

- stage 0.5: (subclinical) minimal symptoms of cognitive or motor dysfunction characteristic of ADC/HAND or mild signs but without impairment of work or capacity to perform ADLs; gait and strength are normal

- stage 1: (mild) evidence of functional intellectual or motor impairments characteristic of ADC/HAND but able to perform all but the more demanding aspects of work or ADLs; can walk without assistance

12

HAND or ADC Stages 2

- stage 2: (moderate) cannot work or maintain the more demanding aspects of daily life but are able to perform basic ADLs of self-care; ambulatory but may require a single prop

- stage 3: (severe) major intellectual incapacity; cannot follow news or personal events; cannot sustain complex conversation with considerable slowing of all output; motor disability where pt cannot walk unassisted; requires a walker or support

- stage 4: (end stage) nearly vegetative; intellectual and social comprehension and responses are rudimentary; possible mute and paraparetic or paraplegic; urinary/fecal incontinence