[DISCUSSION] MODULE 1 UNIT 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in [DISCUSSION] MODULE 1 UNIT 1 Deck (99)
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1
Q

Variolation: origin

A

China

2
Q

ANCIENT TIMES

A
  1. China
  2. Lady Montagu of Turkey
  3. Mithridates (Mithridatism)
  4. Central Africa
  5. Dutch Guiana
3
Q

. Venom and ant eggs as treatment for snake bites

A
  1. Central Africa
4
Q
  1. Dutch Guiana
A

Djoekas

5
Q

Contagion

A

Girolamo Fracastoro (1564)

6
Q

. Smallpox vaccination

A

Edward Jenner (1798)

7
Q

. attenuated chicken cholera, anthrax and rabies vaccines development

A

Louis Pasteur

8
Q

. Coined the term vaccine (from the Latin vacca, meaning cows), an honor of Jenner’s work with cowpox inoculation

A

Louis Pasteur

9
Q

. blood immunized with staphylococci (weak strains) gives partial protection to the same organism

A

Richet and Hericourt

10
Q

. serum of animal immunized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa agglutinated a suspension of the same microbes

A

Charrin and Rodger

11
Q

. Specificity of the Protective Effects of Immunization

A

Pfeiffer

12
Q

. Discovered the role of leukocytes in phagocytosis

A

Elie Metchnikoff (1883)

13
Q
  • as part of cellular immunity
A

INFLAMMATION

14
Q

. [?]— in animals

A

Celsus

15
Q

. [?] — changes occur in CT

A

Virchow

16
Q
  • local vascular lesion
A

. Arnold and Cohnheim

17
Q

action of an immune serum on microbes

A

Fodor

18
Q

neutralizing antitoxic activity of sera

A

Emil von Beh ring and Kitasato (1890)

19
Q

similar neutralizing activity against snake venom

A

CaImette

20
Q

the Pfeiffer phenomenon

A

Pfeiffer and lssaef

21
Q

reconciled humoral and cellular theories

A

Jules Bordet (1895)

22
Q

Sensitizer and Alexine

A

Jules Bordet (1895)

23
Q

. Opsonin

A

Wright and Douglas

24
Q

. First to explain the appearance of antibodies in the circulation

A

Paul Ehrlich — Ehrlich’s Side Chain Theory (1896)

25
Q

. Key and lock

A

Paul Ehrlich — Ehrlich’s Side Chain Theory (1896)

26
Q

Negation to Ehrlichs Theory:

A

. Bordet
. Arrhenius and Madsen

27
Q

Father of Immunohematology

A

Landsteiner (1900)

28
Q

Haptens

A

Landsteiner (1900)

29
Q

Complement Fixation Test

A

Bordet and Gengou (1901)

30
Q

Template Theory

A

Breinl and Haurowitz (1930)

31
Q

Antibodies are immunoglobulins

A

Tiselius and Kabat (1939)

32
Q

. Variable Folding Theory of Antibody Formation

A

Pauling (1940)

33
Q

lsoantibody

A

Bordet

34
Q

. Anamnesis

A

Wassermann and von Dugern

35
Q

bad side of the immune response

A

Hypersensitivity Studies

36
Q

. Anaphylaxes

A

Richet and Portier

37
Q

Arthus phenomenon

A

Arthus

38
Q

. Shwartzman phenomenon

A

Shwartzman

39
Q

. serum sickness

A

Von Pirquet

40
Q

. allergic reaction as manifested by smooth muscle contraction

A

Schultz-Dale

41
Q

.Hay Fever

A

Wolf-Eisner

42
Q

. Passive transfer of allergic reactivity to an allergen

A

Prausnitz-Kustner

43
Q

. role of histamine In inflammatory reactions

A

Riley and West

44
Q

Self-toIerance or immunologic tolerance

A

Burdet and Fenner

45
Q

Felton phenomenon

A

Felton

46
Q

Acquired immune tolerance in bone marrow chimeras in mice Injected with allogeneic bone marrow at or before birth

A

Billingham, Brent. Medawar

47
Q

Immunofluorescence

A

Coons (1941)

48
Q

Blood chimeras (in bovine twins)

A

Owen (1945)

49
Q

Abs are made in plasma cells

A

Fagraeus (1948)

50
Q

classify Ab through uItracentrifugation

A

Svedberg

51
Q

Double helix of DNA

A

Watson and Crick (1953)

52
Q

Natural Selection Theory

A

Jerne (1955)

53
Q

Clonal Selection Theory

A

Talmage and Burnet (1957)

54
Q

B and T cell cooperation

A

Claman, etal. (1966)

55
Q

Fragmentation of Immunoglobulins (1959)

2 Fab’s and 1 Fc-
H chain and Lchain -

A

Porter
Edelman

56
Q

Constant and Variable region

A

Putnam, Hilschmann and Craig (1965)

57
Q

First complete a.a. sequence of an immunoglobulin

A

Edelman (1969)

58
Q

T-cell receptor

A

Allison and Haskins (1982-1983)

59
Q

. Abs are developed in the spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes

A

Pfeiffer and Marx

60
Q

. immunoglobulins are heterogeneous, detected the existence of IgA

A

Grabar and Williams

61
Q

. nomenclature of Ig’s was established and a.a. sequences of them were studied

A

Grabar and Williams

62
Q

Idiotypes

A

Grubb

63
Q

Allotypes

A

Oudin

64
Q

role of thymus in immune system

A

Waksman and Yankowic

65
Q
  • 1 to perform cholera vaccination in India
A

Haffkine

66
Q

— BCG

A

Calmette and Guerin

67
Q
  • tetanus toxoid - detoxified bacterial toxin
A

Lowenstein

68
Q
  • diphtheria toxoid — detoxified bacterial toxin
A

Glenny

69
Q
  • polio vaccine
A

Salk

70
Q

— use of adjuvants in vaccines

A

Le Moignic and Pinoy

71
Q

— 1 synthetic vaccine — diphtheria vaccine

A

Alouf, Chedid. Boquet

72
Q

. Histocompatibility antigens on leukocytes

A

Dausset and Rapaport

73
Q

1st to produce immune serum against tissue components

A

Lindemann

74
Q

. prepared immune serum against leukocytes ( anti-leukocyte antiserum)

A

Metchnikoff and Besredka

75
Q

. antisera against lymphoid tissues/ anti-lymphocyte antiserum

A

Bogomoletz

76
Q

Serum Antitoxins

A

1901 Emil von Behring

77
Q

Cellular Immunity to tuberculosis

A

1905 Robert Koch

78
Q

Role of phagocytosis

A

1908 Elie Metchnikoff

79
Q

Role of antitoxins ¡n immunity

A

1908 Paul Ehrlich

80
Q

Anaphylaxis

A

1913 Charles Richet

81
Q

Complement-mediated bacteriolysis

A

1919 Jules Bordet

82
Q

Discovery of human blood groups

A

1930 Karl Landstelner

83
Q

Development of yellow fever vaccine

A

1951 Max Theiler

84
Q

Antihistamiens

A

1957 DanIel Bovet

85
Q

Discovery of acquired immunological tolerance

A

1960 Frank Macfarlane Burnet & Peter Medawar

86
Q

Chemical structure of antibodies

A

1972 Rodney E. Porter & Gerald M. Edelman

87
Q

Development of radioimmunoassay

A

1977 Rosalyn R. Yalow

88
Q

Major histocompatibility complex

A

1980 George Snell, Jean Dausset, & Baruj Benacerraf

89
Q

Immune regulatory theories

A

1984 Niels Jerne

90
Q

Technological advances in the development of monoclonal antibodies

A

1984 Cesar Mistein & Georges E. Kohler

91
Q

Gene rearrangement In antibody production

A

1987 Susumu Tonegawa

92
Q

Transplantation immunology

A

1991 E. Donnall Thomas & Joseph Murray

93
Q

Role of MHC In antigen recognition by T cells

A

1996 Peter C. Doherty & RoIf M. Zinkernagel

94
Q

Genetic regulation of organ development and cell death (apoptosis)

A

2002 Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz & J. E. Sulston

95
Q

Role of HPV in causing cervical cancer

A

2008 Harald zur Hausen

96
Q

Discovery of HIV

A

2008 Françoise Barrê-Sinoussi & Lut Montagnier

97
Q

Discovery of activating principles of innate immunity

A

Jules Hoffman & Bruce Beutler

98
Q

Role & dendritic cells in adaptive immunity

A

2011 Ralph Steinman

99
Q

Discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation

A

2018 James Allison and Tasuku Honjo