disorders of the gallbladder and biliary tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in disorders of the gallbladder and biliary tract Deck (73):
1

Which way does blood flow in the liver? Bile?

Blood flows from portal veins-->central vein

Bile flows from the central vein-->bile ducts

2

Which zone is first affected by toxic injury? ischemia?

Zone I: portal area = toxic injury
Zone 3: central vein = ischemia

3

What are sinusoids?

fenestrated capillaries allowing macromolecules in blood to contact hepatocytes through the space of Disse

4

What prevents bile from exiting the bile canaliculus in between the hepatocytes and accessing the sinusoids?

tight gap junctions

5

Bile secretion i an active process. What does it depend on?

1. microvilli
2. cytoskeleton
3. interaction of bile with secretory apparatus
4. Permeability of bile canaliculus

6

What is the only mechanism for cholesterol excretion?

bile

7

What is in bile?

bile salts
phospholipids
cholesterol
bilirubin
ions

8

What is a conjugated bile acid?

Adding an AA (glycine or taurine) to a bile acid which makes is amphiphilic

9

Where does bilirubin come from? How is it conjugated?

80% of bilirubin comes from erythrocytes. Glucoronyl transferase adds a glucoronic acid to conjugate it.

10

What do the ducts and ductules do?

Modify the bile by adding HCO3 and water

11

What is the purpose of the gallbladder?

Concentrates the bile

12

What elements are concentrated in the gallbladder?

Na
Bile acid
pH

13

Why do you need an acidic pH for the gallbladder?

Otherwise, CaCO3 will precipitate

14

What do the bile salts form? Why is this essential?

Micelles. These are essential for digestion, transport, and absorption of fat soluble vitamins (ADEK)

15

What is contained in micelles? Vesicles?

Micelles: bile acid+cholesterol+phospholipids
Vesicles: cholesterol+phospholipids

16

What factors can cause gallstone formation?

1. Increased cholesterol, with decreased bile acids and phospholipids in the gallbladder
2. Decreased contractility of the gallbladder
3. High pH

17

What are the actions of cholescystokinin on the gallbladder?

1. Gb contraction
2. Sphincter relaxation
3. Release of pancreatic enzymes
4. Inhibition of gastric emptying

18

What is the total bile flow/day?

600 ml/day.
450mL=bile salts
150mL=water/salts from the ducts

19

What are the main functions of bile?

Fat digestion
Absorption of fat soluble vitamins
Cholesterol waste elimination

20

Which portion of the digestive system has lots of micelles?

jejunum/ileum

21

Where are most of the bile acids resorbed back into the blood?

Within the ileum (95%)

22

What are the names of the secondary bile acids? What produces them?

deoxycholate
lithocholate

23

How much of bile acids arrive in the colon?

1%

24

What would cause a rise in unconjugated bili (indirect), generally?

1. Overproduction of bili
2. Defective uptake
3. Defective conjugation

25

What would cause a rise in conjugated (direct) bili?

defective excretion of bilirubin (extrahepatic)

26

Gilbert's syndrome

Low levels of glucuronyl transferase (High indirect bili)

27

Crigler-Najar (type I/type II)

Type I: no GT
Type II: Very low GT
-->In both cases, high indirect bili

28

Which hereditary condition results in high direct bili?

Dubin Johnson and Rotor syndrome

29

What is cholestasis?

Blockage in bile flow

30

What are the clinical criteria for cholestasis?

Jaundice, gray stool, dark urine, pruritis

31

What labs would you see in cholestasis?

High bili
High ALP
High GGT
High cholesterol
Low levels of fat soluble vitamins

32

What are causes of extrahepatic obsturction?

Gallstones
strictures
neoplasias
parasites

33

What is a fancy name for gallstones?

cholelithiasis

34

What are the two types of gallstones? which can you see on an xray?

cholesterol (majority)
calcium carbonate (radiopaque)

35

What are causes of calcium stones?

hemolysis
cirrhosis
biliary infection

36

What are the physical manifestations of gallstone disease?

70-80% are asymptomatic
If symptomatic, risk of complications

37

What are complications of gallsotnes?

cholecystitis
-empyema/perforation

choledocholithiasis(stone stuck in duct)
-obstructive jaundice
-ascending cholangitis
-gangrenous GB
Pancreatitis (acute mostly)

38

What are the less common complications of gallstones?

1. biliary enteric fistula (can cause a gallstone ileus)
2. Gallstone ileus (impaction of a gallstone within the lumen of the small intestine.)
3. Porcelain gallbladder (calcification of the gallbladder)

39

What is a common presentation of cholecystitis?

Epigastric/RUQ pain
Crescendo-plateau-decrescendo pain over a few hours without resolution
N/V

40

What sign is positive in cholecystitis?

Murphy's sign

41

Which labs will be elevated in acute cholecystitis with obstruction?

bilirubin, AST, ALT

42

What might you see on histology of chronic cholecystitis?

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinus (i.e. infiltration of muscle layer into the mucosa. important to distinguish this from cancer

43

What is a complication of porcelain gallbladder?

carcinoma of the gallbladder in 20% of patients

44

n which patients would you see a strawberry gallbladder?

In chronic cholecystitis or cholesterol rich stones. Pathologists will see cholesterol esters in the lamina propria and foamy lipid laden macrophages

45

Choledocholithiasis

Stones in the duct

46

What are the lab findings of choledocholithiasis?

Bili
ALP
GGT (AST, ALT)

47

What imaging do you want if you suspect choledocholithiasis?

Ultrasound will show a dilated CBD

48

Would you see murphy's sign in a pt with choledocholithiasis?

NO. the gallbladder is not inflammed.

49

What are the complications of choledocholithiasis?

cholangitis
pancreatitis
cirrhosis

50

Is ascending cholangitis a life threatening episode?

YES

51

What are the Sx of cholangitis?

Charcot's triad
Reynold's pentad

52

What are the components of charcot's triad?

RUQ pain, jaundice, fever

53

What are the components of reynold's pentad?

Charcot + MS changes + shock

54

What are the risk factors for forming gallstones?

Female
Obesity
Forty
Family history
Fertile (or pregnant)
-->also, a fatty diet
RAPID WEIGHT LOSS
Diabetes

55

If you see cholecystitis in a pregnant woman, what should you do?

perform a cholecystectomy. Safest in 2nd trimester

56

What is different about cholecystitis in a pregnant woman?

Absent murphy's sign and AP is less helpful

57

What is the most sensitive imaging test for gallstones?

US, endoscopic
95% sensitivity

58

What are the ultrasound findings in choecystitis?

1. pericholecystic fluid
2. thickened wall

59

What is the gold standard diagnostic procedure for choledocholithiasis?

ERCP. Only for therapy-->pull out stone. This is because we have lots of safer diagnostic techniques out there.

Also, There is a 5% risk of pancreatitis

60

What is a non-invasive way to detect CB

MRCP
It's also very sensitive and specific

61

If someone has asymptomatic gallstones, what should you do?

Watch and wait

62

What is the risk of ERCp?

5% chance of causing pancreatitis

63

What is an oral therapy for gallstones?

ursodeoxycholic acid. But only for small cholesterol stones with high recurrence rates

64

What is a definitive treatment for symptomatic gallstones?

cholecystectomy

65

What is the cause of acute acalculous cholecystitits?

In patients with severe systemic illnesses (ICU) likely cause of ischemia

66

If you see gallbladder polyps, should you resect?

Yes, if over 1 cm b/c the bigger it is, the greater the risk of becoming cancerous

67

What is the prognosis for gallbladder carcinoma?

Poor

68

What are the risk factors for GB carcinoma?

gallstones, chronic cholecystitis, choledochal cysts

69

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

chronic, fibrosing, inflammatory process of the bile ducts, destroying the biliary tree and causing cirrhosis

70

What is secondary sclerosing cholangitis?

Chronic biliary obstruction causing secondary fibrosis

71

What are the different types of choledochal cysts?

Type I: segmental dilations of CBD
Type II: diverticular cysts
Type III: intra and extra hepatic cysts
Type IV: intrahelpatic cysts

72

Cholangiocarcinoma

Tumor of cholangiocytes in the ducts. Poor survival

73

Klatskin tumor

Cholangiocarcinoma of the bifurcation