Flashcards in Dissociative & Somatic Symptom Disorders Deck (38):
What is the main trigger of dissociative disorders?
Traumatic life experiences (can be real or perceived)
In dissociative disorders what is wrong?
In normal people there is a unity in consciousness that gives rise to sense of self, and we perceive ourselves as progressing through space or time
- In dissociative disorders, one or more of these aspects of daily life is disturbed
What is Dissociative Identity Disorder?
Dissociative disorder in which a person has two or more distinct or alternate personalities each with well defined traits and memories
-may or may not be aware of eachother (dominant personality usually the one unaware)
What are the controversies over Dissociative identity disorder?
Most cases are reported by a small number of investigators and clinicians who strongly believe in the existence of the disorder
What did Spanos' research find about dissociative identity disorder?
Not a distinct disorder but a form of role playing in which individuals first come to construe themselves as having multiple selves and then act in ways that are consistent to what they think the disorder is
-role playing becomes so ingrained in them that it becomes reality to them
What was the case of Kenneth Bianchi
-said to have dissociative identity disorder
-questions around whether the psychiatrist that interviewed him suggest to him that he could play roles with multiple personalities
-the way the you phrase things could cue someone to take on another personality
What is Dissociative Amnesia?
Type of dissociative disorder in which a person experiences memory losses in the absence of any identifiable organic cause
-this memory loss is reversible
-usually localized amnesia
-General knowledge and skills usually retained
Do dissociative disorders get diagnosed right away?
No, first have to be sure there are no other explanations for the behaviour
What is Malingering?
A type of dissociative amnesia
-faking illness so as to avoid or escape work or other duties, or to obtain benefits
What is dissociative amnesia with fugue?
Type of dissociative disorder in which one suddenly flies from one's life situation, travels to a new location, assumes a new identity, and has amnesia for past personal material
-person retains skills and abilities that may appear to others in new place as someone leading normal life
-once the old memories come back, they typically don't remember the time in the fugue state
What is Depersonalization Disorder?
-disorder characterized by persistent or recurrent episodes of depersonalization
-feeling detachment of unreality from one's self or body (as if you are on autopilot, observing self from outside)
What is derealization?
Part of depersonalization disorder
-characterized by the sense that one's surroundings have become strange or unreal
-ex.) colours may seem washed out or brights, time may seem slowed down
-still maintain contact with reality, know who they are
What is psychodynamic perspective on Dissociative disorders?
-Repression: leads to splitting off from consciousness of unacceptable impulses and painful memories
What is the Learning Perspective on dissociative disorders?
-it is a learned response that involves not thinking about disturbing acts or thoughts in order to avoid feelings of guilt and shame evoked by such experiences
What does Spanos believe about dissociative disorders?
-It is role playing as a result of observational learning and reinforcement
What are the controversies?
-False memories can be produced. Memory has a constructive nature
What is the psychoanalysis treatment?
-Uncovering early childhood traumas
-bringing together an integration of the alter personalities into a cohesive personality
-will no longer need to "escape" into alternate selves
What are the SSRI's used for?
Depression and anxiety that accompanies many dissociative disorders
What are Somatoform disorders?
Involve physical complaints that reflect underlying psychological conflicts or issues
-disorders in which people complain of physical problems but no physical abnormality is found
What is Conversion Disorder?
Somatoform disorder characterized by loss or impairment of physical function in the absence of any organic causes that might account for the changes
-Formerly called hysteria
-psychodynamic believes it is the repressed sexual or aggressive energies into physical symptoms
What is the La Belle Indifference?
Describes the lack of concern over one's symptoms displayed by some people with conversion disorder but also by people with real physical disorders
What is Illness Anxiety Disorder?
People who do not consciously fake their symptoms but fear their symptoms are due to a real illness
-Feel resentful towards their doctor and go "doctor shopping"
-begins around age 20-30
-equal in men and women
What is Somatic Symptom Disorder?
Type of somatoform disorder involving recurrent multiple complaints that cannot be explained by any clear physical causes and begin prior to age of 30, persist for years
-Formerly Briquet's syndrome
-heavy users of medical services
-pestered by the symptoms of disease
What are Primary Gains?
In psychodynamic theory, primary gain is the relief from anxiety obtained through the development of a neurotic symptom
-allow individual to keep internal conflicts repressed
What are Secondary Gains?
Side benefits associated with neuroses or other disorders, such as expressions of sympathy and increased attention from others and release from responsibilities
What is psychoanalysis treatment for somatoform disorders
-Uncover and bring unconscious childhood conflicts into awareness
What are behavioural methods of treatment for somatoform disorders
-Removing sources of secondary reinforcement that are connected with physical complaints
What is CBT treatment for somatoform disorders
-Modify the exaggerated illness-related beliefs of patients with the disorder
What SSRI's can be used to treat somatoform disorders?
What is Koro Syndrome?
From East Asia, China
-Fear that their genitals are shrinking or retracting into their body and believe this will lead to death
What is Dhat Syndrome
-found among young men in India and involve excessive fears over loss of seminal fluid during nocturnal emissions
What is Amok?
Trance-like state in which a person suddenly becomes highly excited and violently attacks other people or destroys objects
What is Zar?
-North African and Middle East
-Describes spirit possession in people who experience dissociative states during which they engage in unusual behaviour ranging from shouting to banging heads against wall
What is Munchausen syndrome?
factisious disorder characterized by the feigning of medical symptoms for no apparent purpose other than getting admitted to or remaining in the hospital
-may even go through unnecessary surgeries even though nothing is wrong with them
What is Munchausen by proxy syndrome?
When parent feigns or induces illness in a child
preoccupation or fear that one's physical symptoms are due to an underlying serious illness
-do not consciously fake their symptoms
Body dysmorphic disorder
person is preoccupied with some imagined defect in his or her appearance
-endless worry about body