DIT Renal 3. Metabolic Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DIT Renal 3. Metabolic Disorders Deck (20):
1

What change in a basic metabolic panel might you expect in a young pt being treated for status asthmaticus?

hypokalemia


(bc pt is probably taking beta agonists for asthma)

2

What factors/substances cause hyperkalemia?

K+ sparing diuretics
ACEI
Acidosis
Insulin deficiency
Beta antagonists
Hyperosmolarity
Digitalis
Cellular lysis

3

What factors/substances cause hypokalemia?

Loop or Thiazide diuretics
Insulin
Beta agonists
Alkalosis
Hypo-osmolarity
DKA (even though they have elevated lab levels of K, they are actually peeing out a lot of K+)
Heart failure pts
Renal failure pts

4

A pt presents with hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and low plasma renin. What is the diagnosis and how do you treat it?

Primary hyperaldosteronism


Tx: Spironolactone

5

What are the actions of angiotensin II?

1. direct vasoconstriction
2. raises aldosterone levels
3. constrict efferent arteriole of glomerulus (decr. RBF, incr. GFR --> incr. FF)

9

arrythmias

hyperkalemia
hypokalemia
hypomagnesemia

12

What are the causes of anion-gap acidosis?

MUDPILES


Methanol (formic acid)
Uremia
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Paraldehyde or Phenformin
Iron tablets or INH
Lactic acidosis
Ethylene glycol (oxalic acid)
Salicylates

13

How does acidosis/alkalosis affect extracellular K+ concentrations?

Acidosis --> swap H for K --> Hyperkalemia

Alkalosis --> swap K for H--> Hypokalemia

20

What are the diagnostic features of diabetes insipidus?

Water Deprivation Test
-urine osmolality doesn't increase

Desmopressin Test
-improvement: central DI
-no improvement: nephrogenic DI

28

correcting too rapidly may result in central pontine myelinosis

Hyponatremia

31

peaked T waves

Hyperkalemia

34

tetany

hypocalcemia

42

decreased deep tendon reflexes

Hypermagnesemia

45

flattened T waves, U waves on EKG

Hypokalemia

63

pCO2= 42

Metabolic alkalosis w/o compensation

68

pCO2= 28

Metabolic Acidosis + respiratory compensation

73

pCO2= 40

Metabolic Acidosis w/o compensation

78

pCO2= 30

Metabolic Alkalosis + Respiratory alkalosis

83

pCO2= 22

Respiratory alkalosis with metabolic compensation

88

pCO2= 50

Metabolic acidosis + Respiratory Acidosis