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Flashcards in Neoplasia hw Deck (64):
1

Agent most responsible for cancer and cancer deaths in the US

Tobacco

2

Sequence of chemical carcinogenesis

Initiaion → promotion→ progression

3

Aflatoxin (from aspergillus)

HCC in assoc. w/ Hep B

4

Alcohol

Squamous cell carcinoma or oropharynx and upper/middle esophagus; pancreatic and Hepatocellular carcinomas

5

Alkylating agents

Malignant lymphoma

6

Arsenic

Squamous cell carcinoma of skin, lung cancer, liver angiosarcoma

7

Asbestos

Bronchogenic carcinoma, pleural mesothelioma

8

Benzene

Acute Leukemia

9

Beryllium

Bronchogenic carcinoma

10

Chromium

Bronchogenic carcinoma

11

Cyclophosphamide

Transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

12

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

Clear cell carcinoma of vagina/cervix

13

β-Naphthylamine (aniline dyes)

Transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

14

Nickel

Bronchogenic carcinoma

15

Oral Contraceptives

Breast, cervical carcinomas

16

Polycyclic hydrocarbons

Squamous cell carcinoma: oral cavity, midesophagus, larynx, lung; Adenocarcinoma: pancreas, kidney; Transitional cell carcinoma: urinary bladder, renal pelvis

17

Silica

Bronchogenic carcinoma

18

Oncogenic RNA viruses

HCV , HTLV-1 (human T-cell lymphotropic virus)

19

HCV

produces postnecrotic cirrhosis; HCC

20

HTVL-1 (Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus)

Activates TAX gene, stimulates polyclonal T-cell proliferation, inhibits P53; T-cell leukemia and lymphoma

21

Oncogenic DNA viruses

EBV, HBV, HHV-8, HPV 16 and 18

22

EBV

Promotes polyclonal B cell proliferation, which ↑ risk for t(8;14); Burkitts lymphoma, CNS lymphoma in AIDS, mixed cellularity Hodgkins lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma

23

HBV

activates proto-oncogenes, inactivates p53; HCC

24

HHV-8

acts via cytokine released from HIV and HSV; Kaposis sarcoma in AIDS

25

HPV 16 and 18

Type 16: E6 gene product inhibits P53, Type 18: E7 inhibits RB; squamous cell carcinoma of vulva, vagina, cervix, anus, larynx, oropharynx

26

Pathogens and cancer

Viruses 〉 bacteria 〉 parasites

27

MC cancer d/t ionizing radiation

AML (acute myeloblastic leukemia) or CML (chronic myeloblastic leukemia)

28

MC cancer d/t excessive UV light exposure

Basal cell carcinoma

29

Squamous cell carcinoma in physical injury

3rd degree burns; chronically draining sinuses (chronic osteomyelitis)

30

Most effective host defense against cancer

Cytotoxic CD8 T cells

31

Most important prognostic factor

Staging criteria; TNM system

32

Least to most important prognostic factor

T 〈 N 〈 M (most important)

33

Molecule involved in Cachexia

TNF-α secreted by macrophages and tumor cells→suppresses appetite in hypothalamus and stimulates apoptosis

34

MC anemia in cancer

Anemia of chronic dz; normocytic anemic w/ corrected reticulocyte count 〈 3 %

35

Hemostasis abnormality in malignancy

Thrombogenic

36

MCC of death in cancer

Gram - sepsis

37

Skin abnormality that may be assoc. w/ stomach cancer

Acanthosis nigricans; black, verrucoid-appearing lesion

38

Signs of ectopic hormone production

hypercalcemia, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, hypercortisolism, polycythemia

39

Eaton-Lambert syndrome

Small cell carcinoma of lung; Myasthenia gravis-like Sxs (muscle weakness); Ab against Ca channel

40

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

Bronchogenic carcinoma; Periosteal rxn of distal phalanx (often assoc. w/ clubbing of nail)

41

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

Mucus-secreting pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas; sterile vegetations on mitral valve

42

Seborrheic keratosis

Stomach carcinoma; Sudden appearance of numerous pigmented seborrheic keratoses (leser-Trélat sign)

43

Superficial migratory thrombophlebitis

Pancreatic carcinoma; Release of procoagulants (Trousseaus sign: hypercoagulability)

44

Nephrotic syndrome

Lung, breast, stomach carcinomas; Diffuse membranous glomerulopathy

45

Cushing syndrome

ACTH; small cell carcinoma of lung, medullary carcinoma of thyroid

46

Gynecomastia

hCG; Choriocarcinoma (testis)

47

Hypercalcemia

PTH-related protein: Renal cell carcinoma, 1° squamous cell carcinoma of lung, breast carcinoma; Calcitriol (VitD): malignant lymphoma (contain α1-hydroxylase)

48

Hypocalcemia

Calcitonin; Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

49

Hypoglycemia

Insulin-like facter; HCC

50

Hyponatremia

ADH; small cell carcinoma of lung

51

2° Polycythemia

EPO; Renal cell and Hepatocellular carcinoma

52

α-fetoprotein (AFP)

HCC, yolk sac tumor of ovary or testis

53

Bence Jones Protein

Multiple myeloma, Waldenströms macroglobulinemia

54

CA 15-3

Breast cancer

55

CA 19-9

Pancreatic, colorectal carcinomas

56

CA 125

Surface-derived ovarian cancer (eg serous cystadenocarcinoma; helpful in distinguishing malignant from b9

57

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

Colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas

58

Lactate dehydrogenase

Malignant lymphoma

59

Cytokeratin

epithelial origin

60

Vimentin

Connective tissue origin

61

Desmin

Muscle

62

GFAP

Neuroglia

63

Neurofilaments

Neurons

64

CD45+

Malignant lymphoma