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Flashcards in Diuretics Deck (50):
1

carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

azetazolamide

2

osmotic diuretic

mannitol

3

Na/K/2Cl blockers (name 2)

furosemide

ethacrynic acid

4

Na/Cl blocker

hydrochlorothiazide

5

ENaC inhibitor

amiloride

6

aldosterone antagonists (name 2)

spironolactone

eplerenone

7

vasopressin antagonist

tolvaptan

8

ENaC is potassium _______ (sparing/wasting)

sparing

9

for hypertension, first line is ________ diuretics

thiazide

10

for edematous states, first line is _________ diuretics

loop

11

most diuretics are aimed at ________ ECFV by _________

reducing

excreting sodium

12

what stimulates the thirst response?

high osmolality of blood

13

immobile interstitial volume

bone
transcellular
dense connective tissue

14

the end game for diuretics is to ________

change the steady state (in=out) to a lower volume of body fluid

15

the phenomenon whereby diuretics cause a temporary increase in Na/H20 excretion with decrease in body weight, but then stabilize at a new steady state is called ________

diuretic braking

16

increases luminal sodium

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

17

alkalinizes the urine

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

18

increase in sodium to the DCT macula dense cells leads to ____________

increased EA relaxation and subsequent decrease in GFR

(diuretic braking)

19

can treat metabolic alkalosis

carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

(increase bicarb excretion in urine)

20

can treat Acute Mountain Sickness

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

(reduce accumulation of CO2)

21

topically, can treat glaucoma

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

(reduce production of aqueous humor)

22

renal stones
metabolic acidosis
cross hypersensitivity with sulfonamides

ADVERSE EFFECTS OF

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

(but usually well tolerated)

23

secreted by OATS into tubular lumen

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
loop diuretics
thiazide diuretics

24

loop diuretics decreasing potassium back leak leads to______

decreased Ca and Mg reabsorption

25

inhibits Na sensing mechanism in macula densa

loop diuretics

26

diuretic braking for loop diuretics is via _________

release of PGs and NO from macula dense, leading to increase in renin (and Na retention)

27

site of action: PT

CAIs

28

site of action: TALH

loop diuretics

29

first choice for hypertension with CHF

loop diuretic

30

hypokalemia
arrhythmias r/t lyte depletion
hypotension
ototoxicity
hyperuricemia
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF

loop diuretics

31

decrease morbidity and mortality in HF patients

loop diuretics

32

increase luminal sodium and chloride

thiazides

33

decreases calcium excretion

thiazides

can use to treat hypercalciuria (prevent renal stones)

34

side of action: DCT

thiazides

35

___________ are frequently given with thiazides to minimize hypokalemia

ACE inhibitors

36

hypokalemia
hypercalcemia
hyperuricemia
hyperglycemia
hyperlipidemia
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF

thiazides

37

decrease morbidity and mortality in pts with HF AND HTN

thiazides

38

increased luminal _______ in the collecting duct causes potassium excretion

sodium

(MOA at principal cells)

39

increased luminal _______ in the collecting duct causes H+ excretion

potassium

(MOA at alpha-intercalated cells)

40

secreted by OCT in PT

ENaC blockers

41

site of action: late DCT & CD

ENaC blockers
Aldosterone antagonists

42

Aldosterone antagonists are most effective when ________ levels are high

aldosterone (activated RAAS)

43

compared to spironolactone, eplerenone has decreased risk of _________

gynecomastia

44

given in conjunction with thiazide or loop diuretics to prevent loss of K+

ENaC blockers
aldosterone antagonists

45

reduces morbidity and mortality in HF when given in combo with loop or thiazide

aldosterone antagonists

46

not absorbed in the GI, must be given IV to be filtered into the kidney

mannitol

47

site of action: water permeable segments of nephron, mainly DLH

osmotic diuretics

48

used to reduce intracranial or intraocular pressure perioperatively

osmotic diuretics

49

site of action: CD

vasopressin (ADH) antagonists

50

used to treat SIADH

vasopressin antagonists