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Flashcards in Diuretics - Kruse Deck (65)
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1

ending of loop diuretics

-mide

2

ending of thiazide diuretics

-thiazide

3

K-sparing diuretics - mineralcorticoid antagonists

-eplernone
-spirinolactone

4

K sparing diuretics - Na renal sodium channel inhibitors

-amiloride
-triameterene

5

osmotic diuretics

-mannitol
-isosorbide

6

ADH antagonists

conivaptan

7

what is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule?

PCT: NaHCO3, NaCl, K, H2O, glucose, AA, other organic solutes

8

what is reabsorbed from the tDL?

H2O

9

what is the TAL impermeable to?

H2O

10

what is the DCT relatively impermeable to?

H2O

11

What regulates Ca2+ reabsorption in the DCT?

PTH

12

What is the NCC NaCl transporter in the DCT sensitive to?

thiazide diuretics

13

The CD is the most important site of what?

K secretion

14

Action of aldosterone at the CD

increases ENaC and basolateral Na/K ATPase ( = Na reabs, K secretion)

15

ADH action in the CD

controls expression of AQP2 thereby controling the CD's H2O permeability (w/out ADH the CD isn't permeable to H2O)

16

site of carbonic anhydrase excretion

proximal tubule

17

MOA: carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

inhibition of membrane-bound and cytoplasmic forms of carbonic anhdrase = near complete abolition of bicarb reabs in proximal tubule

18

pH effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

increase urine pH, decrease body pH

19

DOA: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

effect wears off in a few days d/t Na+ reabsorption

20

AE: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

-metabolic acidosis
-renal stones
-hypokalemia
-drowsiness and parathesias in large doses
-hypersensitivity rxns (rare)

21

CI: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

-cirrhosis
-hyperchloremic acidosis
-severe COPD

22

clinical uses of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

-v rare as diuretic
-used topically for glaucoma to decreaes intraoccular P
-adjuvant in epilepsy

23

correlation of loop diuretics' T1/2

kidney function - their elimination is indicative of secretion at proximal tubule

24

coadmin of loop diruretics with weak acids

reduction of diuretic secretion

25

MOA: loop diuretics

-inhibition of luminal Na/K/2Cl cotransporter in TAL
-induces synthesis of renal PGs
-causes increase in RBF
-some weakly inhibit carbonic anhydrase

26

AE: loop diuretics

-hyponatremia
-hepatic encephalopathy in liver dz pts
-otoxoicity
-hypokalemic metabolic acidosis
-gout
-hypomagnesemia
-allergic reactions

27

CI: loop diuretics

-sulfonamide sensitivity
-doesn't work in hepatic cirrhosis, renal failure, heart failure
-avoid in postmenopausal women

28

DI:loop diuretics

-aminoglycosides: increased ototoxicity
-lithium
-digoxin

29

CI: loop diuretics

-pulmonary edema
-HTN
-HF
-ARF
-anion OD
-hypercalcemia
-mild hyperkalemia

30

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

-acetazolomide
-brinzolomide
-dorzolomide
-methazolamide