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Flashcards in DLM Deck (31):
1

Bone cortex

Outer layer of compact bone- denser and white on x-ray

2

Bone medulla

Marrow cavity in shaft of long bone. Paler on x-ray than cortex

3

Epiphysial plate

Hyaline cartilage plate in metaphysis at each end of long bone

4

Bone texture

Trabecular arrangement of alveolar bone in relation to marrow spaces

5

Periosteum

Fibrous membrane covering surface of bones, does not cover articular surfaces

6

Joint spaces

Sac-like fibrous tissue that envelops a synovial joint

7

Open fracture

Broken bone punctures skin- compound fracture

8

Closed fracture

Bone does not puncture skin

9

Occult fracture

Subtle fractures hard to distinguish- imperfections on trabecular lawn

10

Comminuted

Fracture in multiple pieces, 3+ fragments

11

Simple fracture

1 break, no fragments, displacement

12

Pathologic fracture

Result of preceding pathology. Break due to low trauma

13

Angulation

Displacement where bone is angled away from original position.

14

Rotation

Displacement where fractured bone rotates from original position- internal or external rotation

15

Displacement

Loss of alignment due to fracture

16

Stress fracture

Hard to distinguish on x-ray. Thickening or smudging. Due to repetitive use.

17

Subluxation

incomplete dislocation

18

Dislocation

Joint becomes not a joint

19

Avulsion

Fracture that results in ligament or tendon pulling off bone where attached

20

New fracture

Well defined sharp edges on x-ray

21

Older fracture

subtle, brighter white due to thickening

22

Transverse

straight across

23

Oblique

break at an angle

24

Spiral

multiple break in spiral pattern- torsional trauma

25

Greenstick fracture

splintering of bone n opposite side or trauma

26

Torus

Incomplete fracture of long bone- appears as bulging on x-ray

27

Fat pad sign

Displacement of fat surrounding joint- indicative of fluid displacing it, often blood

28

Ottawa knee rules

X-ray required in patients with acute injury for:
55+
Tenderness at fibular head
Isolated patellar tenderness
Inability to flex 90
Inability to bear weight immediately and in ED (4 steps)

29

Ottawa Ankle & foot Rules

X-ray only if pain in malleolar zone and:
- bone tenderness along distal 6cm of posterior edge of tibia or medial malleolus
-bone tenderness along distal 6cm of posterior edge of fibula or tip of lateral malleolus
-Inability to bear weight immediately and in ED

30

Non-agressive tumor x-ray

Well defined borders, thick, dense, wavy

31

Agressive tumor x-ray

fuzzy borders, amorphous, periosteal reaction, soft tissue involvement