Dog Forelimb Flashcards Preview

Anatomy I (Fall) > Dog Forelimb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dog Forelimb Deck (145):
1

Muscle insertion

Part of the muscle that moves the most during contraction. Can change (often based on position of the limb). Often distal.

2

Tendon

Dense, regularly arranged connective tissue in a small well-defined bundle.

3

Aponeurosis

Dense regularly arranged connective tissue in a sheet.

4

Ligament

Dense fibrous connective tissue between bone/bone, organ/organ, or organ/body wall.

5

Cutaneus trunci

Thin superficial sheet of muscle more closely associated with fascia than any bone or other structure.
Attachments: superficial fascia
Action: twitch reflex

6

Preputial muscle

Thickening of the cutaneus trunci near the prepuce
Attachments: superficial fascia
Action: supports cranial prepuce (non-erect)
Pulls prepuce over glans (post erection)

7

Platysma

Continuation of the cutaneus trunci over face
Insertion: skull
Action: facial twitch, "smiling"

8

Decending pectoral

One of two superficial pectoral muscles
Origin: 1st sternabrae
Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus
Action: adduct limb (free limb)
Prevent abduction (fixed limb)
Innervation: crainial pectoral nerves (c7,c8 spinal nerve, ventral branch)

9

Transverse pectoral

One of two parts of superficial pectorals
Origin: 1st 2 or 3 sternebrae
Insertion: greater tubercle of the humerus
Action: adduct the limb (free limb)
Prevent abduction (fixed limb)
Innervation: crainial pectoral nerves (c7,c8 spinal nerve,ventral branch)

10

Deep pectoral

Origin: fibrous raphe of sternum
Deep abdominal fascia near xyphoid
Insertion: lesser tubercle of the humerus (tendon and muscle)
Greater tubercle (aponeurosis)
Medial brachial fascia
Action: pull trunk cranially (limb fixed)
Draw limb caudally, adduct, flex shoulder joint (limb free)
Innervation: caudal pectoral nerves (c8,t1)

11

Brachiocephalicus

Compound muscle of three parts: all attachments movable
cleidobrachialis-
O: clavicular intersection
I: distal third of humerus
Cleidocephalicus pars cervicalis -
O: clavicular intersection
I: dorsal midline of the neck on fibrous raphe
Cleidocephalicus pars mastoidea-
O: clavicular intersection
I: mastoid process of skull
Action: advance the limb
Extend the shoulder joint
Draw head and neck to the side or down (Uni vs bi)
Innervation:

12

Sternocephalicus

O: 1st sternebrae (aka manubrium)
I: Mastoid part - mastoid process of temporal bone
Occipital part - nuchal crest of occipital bone
Action: draw head and neck to the side or down (Uni vs bi)
Innervation: accessory nerve and ventral branches of cervical spinal nerves.

13

Sternohyoideus

O: manubrium and first costal cartilage
I: basihyoid bone
Action: pull tongue and larynx caudally
Innervation: ventral branches of cervical spinal nerves

14

Sternothyroideus

O: first costal cartilage
I: thyroid cartilage
Action: pull tongue and larynx caudally
Innervation: ventral branches of cervical spinal nerves

15

Omotransversarius

Attachments (o and I variable)
Scapular spine (distal end)
Transverse wing of the atlas
Action: advance the limb (free limb)
Flex neck laterally (fixed limb)
Innervation: accessory nerve

16

Rhomboideus

Rhomboideus capitis
O: nuchal crest of occipital bone
I: dorsal border of scapula
Rhomboideus cervicis
O: median raphe of the neck
I: dorsal border of scapula
Rhomboideus thoracis
O: spinous processes of 1st 7 vertebrae
I: dorsal border of scapula
Action: elevate the forelimb
Draw scapula against the trunk
Innervation: thoracic spinal nerves
Ventral branches of cervical nerves

17

Trapezius

Cervical part of the trapezius
O: median raphe of the neck
I: scapular spine
Thoracic part of the trapezius
O: supraspinous ligament from c3 to t9
I: scapular spine
Action: elevate and abduct the forelimb
Innervation: accessory nerve

18

Latissimus Dorsi

O: thoracolumbar fascia from spinous processes of lumbar and last 7-8 vertebrae, muscular attachment to last 2-3 ribs
I: teres major tuberosity
Teres major tendon
Action: draw limb caudally (free limb)
Flex shoulder joint (fixed limb)
Innervation: thoracodorsal nerve (c7,c8,t1)

19

Serratus ventralis

Serratus ventralis cervicis:
O: transverse processes of last five cervical vertebrae
Serratus ventralis thoracis:
O: first seven to eight thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: serrated face of the scapula
Action: support the trunk
Depress the scapula
Innervation: ventral branches of cervical spinal nerves and the long thoracic nerve (c7)

20

Deltoideus

O: acromion and scapular spine
I: deltoid tuberosity of humerus
A: flex the shoulder joint
In: axillary nerve

21

Infraspinatus

O: Infraspinous fossa of scapula
I: greater tubercle of humerus (lateral side)
A: can extend or flex shoulder dependent on joint position
Abduct and rotate shoulder laterally
In: suprascapular nerve

22

Umbilicus

Scar on midventral line

23

Vortex

Spiral of hair around the umbilicus

24

Integument

Skin. Thickest on the neck, thinnest on the ventral surface of the abdomen.

25

Mammae

8-12 on dogs but typically 10, 4 thoracic, 4 abdominal, 2 inguinal. Most cranial set always smaller. In lactating animals, abdominal and inguinal glandular tissue appears to be one mass. Each has a papilla or nipple with a various number of ducts dependent on species. Only fully developed in the lactating animal.

26

Epidermis

Thin outer epithelium of the integument

27

Dermis

Thicker deep layer of the integument, layer of connective tissue

28

Costal arch

Costal cartilages of the 10th, 11th, and 12th ribs. 13th = floating rib because it does not connect to this structure.

29

Superficial fascia

Directly deep to areolar tissue. Denser and more regular connective tissue, covers the entire body.

30

Deep fascia

Dense and regularly arranged connective tissue firmly attached to the muscles it encloses.

31

Areolar tissue

Thin layer of loose, irregularly arranged tissue often containing fat just deep to the integument

32

Superficial cervical lymph nodes

Lns crainial to the scapula and covered by the omotransversarius. Should be palpable in the live dog.

33

Deep fascia of the neck

Deep fibrous wrapping under the sternocephalicis
Covers the Sternohyoideus, sternothyroideus, trachea, thyroid gland, larynx, and esophagus.

34

Carotid sheath

Covers common carotid artery, vagosympathetic nerve trunk, internal jugular vein, and tracheal lymphatic trunk.

35

Supraspinous ligament

Connects all dorsal aspects of the vertebral spines except the cervical vertebrae.

36

Nuchal ligament

Yellow elastic fibrous tissue
Connects the spine of the first thoracic vertebrae to the spine of the axis. Particularly pronounced in large grazing animals.

37

Median raphe

Longitudinal fibrous septem between epaxial muscles
Dorsal to the nuchal ligament
Serves as an attachment for many cervical muscles

38

Thoracolumbar fascia

Deep fascia of the trunk
Arises from the supraspinous ligament and spines of the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae
Fuses with fascia on ventral midline

39

Linea alba

Ventral midline fascial line

40

Deltoideus

O: scapular spine and acromion
I: deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
A: flex the shoulder joint
In: axillary nerve

41

Infraspinatus

O: Infraspinous fossa
I: greater tubercle of the humerus
A: flex the shoulder joint
Abduct and rotate the shoulder laterally
Prevent medial rotation (fixed limb)
In: suprascapular nerve

42

Subtendinous synovial bursa

Underneath the Infraspinatus next to greater tubercle.

43

Bursa

Closed connective tissue sac containing synovial fluid to reduce friction.

44

Teres minor

O: infraglenoid tubercle and caudal border of the scapula
I: teres minor tuberosity
A: flex the shoulder
Prevent medial rotation (fixed limb)
In: suprascapular nerve

45

Supraspinatus

O: supraspinous fossa
I: lesser tubercle of the humerus
A: extend and laterally stabilize the shoulder
In: suprascapular nerve

46

Subscapularis

O: subscapular fossa
I: lesser tubercle of the humerus
A: adduct, extend, medially stabilize shoulder
Prevent lateral rotation (fixed limb)
In: subscapular nerve

47

Teres major

O: caudal angle and border of scapula
Caudal surface of subscapularis
I: teres major tuberosity
A: flex and medially rotate shoulder
Prevent lateral rotation (fixed limb)
In: axillary nerve

48

Coracobrachialis

O: coracoid process of the scapula
I: lesser tubercle of the humerus
A: adduct and extend the shoulder joint
In: musculocutaneous nerve

49

Tensor fasciae antebrachii

O: fascia on the lateral side of the latissimus Dorsi
I: olecranon
A: extend the elbow
In: radial nerve

50

Triceps brachii - long head

O: caudal border of scapula
I: olecranon tuber
A: extend the elbow
In: radial nerve

51

Triceps brachii lateral head

O: tricipital line of the humerus
I: olecranon tuber
A: extend the elbow
In: radial nerve

52

Triceps brachii accessory head

O: neck of the humerus
I: olecranon tuber
A: extend the elbow
In: radial nerve

53

Triceps brachii medial head

O: lesser tubercle
I: olecranon
A: extend the elbow
In: radial nerve

54

Anconeus

O: lateral supracondylar crest of the humerus
I: olecranon
A: extend the elbow
In: radial nerve

55

Biceps brachii

O: supraglenoid tubercle
I: ulnar and radial tuberosities
A: flex the elbow, extend the shoulder
In: musculocutaneous nerve

56

Transverse humeral rentinaculum

Band of fibrous tissue joining the greater and lesser tubercles, holding the tendon of the biceps brachii in place in the tubercular groove

57

Intertubercular bursa

The synovial sheath over the tendon of the biceps brachii, an extension of the shoulder joint capsule

58

Brachialis

O: lateral humerus - proximal third
I: ulnar and radial tuberosities
A: flex the elbow
In: musculocutaneous nerve

59

Foot pads

Carpal (small, round) metacarpal (wide and triangular) and digital pad (five, small triangular)

60

Deep antebrachial fascia

Single dense sleeve for the muscles of the forearm on the caudal surface

61

Extensor carpi radialis

O: lateral supracondylar crest
I: small tuberosities on dorsal surface of base of metacarpals II and III
A: extend the carpus
In: radial nerve

62

Extensor retinaculum

Transversely oriented carpal fascia that holds in all the tendons that cross the dorsum of the carpus

63

Common digital extensor

O: lateral epicondyle of the humerus
I: extensor processes of digits II, III, IV, and V
A: extend four principal digits and the carpus
In: radial nerve

64

Dorsal ligament

Lies on each side of the common digital extensor tendon, causing normal overextension of the distal interphalangeal joint

65

Lateral digital extensor

O: lateral epicondyle of the humerus
I: proximal ends and distal extensor processes of digits III, IV, and V
A: extend the carpus and the digits listed above
In: radial nerve

66

Ulnaris lateralis

O: lateral epicondyle of the humerus
I: lateral epicondyle of proximal end of metacarpal V and accessory carpal bone.
A: abduct the manus, flex the carpal joint
In: radial nerve

67

Supinator

O: lateral epicondyle of the humerus
I: cranial surface of the humerus (proximal fourth)
A: supinate the forearm and flex the elbow
In: radial nerve

68

Abductor digiti I longus

O: lat/cran ulna and interosseous membrane
I: proximal end of metacarpal 1 (sesmoid near the intermedioradial)
A: abduct the first digit or pollex and extend the carpal joint
In: radial nerve

69

Pronater teres

O: medial epicondyle of the humerus
I: medial border of the radius - middle
A: pronate (rotate medially) the arm and flex the elbow
In: median nerve

70

Flexor carpi radialis

O: medial epicondyle of the humerus and humerus medial border
I: palmar base of metacarpals II and III
A: to flex the carpus
In: median nerve

71

Flexor retinaculum

Layer of fibrous tissue on the palmar side of the carpus

72

Superficial digital flexor

O: medial epicondyle of the humerus
I: palmar bases of middle phalanges II, III, IV, and V
A: flex the carpus and digits listed above
In: median nerve

73

Flexor manica

Collar that the four tendons of the superficial digital flexor forms around the deep flexor tendon at the metacarpopharyngeal joint

74

Palmar annular ligament

Crosses the flexor manica, holding all the tendons of the palmar side of the hand down at the metacarpopharyngeal joint

75

Digital synovial sheath

The sheath surrounding the deep flexor tendon and the superficial flexor tendon

76

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Two heads:
Ulnar head O: olecranon
Humeral head O: medial epicondyle of the humerus
I: accessory carpal bone
Ac: flex the carpus
In: ulnar nerve

77

Carpal canal

Space between the accessory carpal bone and the carpal bones

78

Deep digital flexor

Three heads
Humeral head O: medial epicondyle
Ulnar head O: caudal border of the ulna
Radial head O: medial border of the radius
I: flexor tubercles of distal phalanges I through V
A: flex carpal and digital joints
In: median and ulnar nerves

79

Pronator quadratus

Attachments - apposed surfaces of the radius and ulna
A: to pronate the paw
In: median nerve

80

Interossei

Cover the four palmar surface of the the metacarpals

81

Humeral joint flexor surface

Shoulder. Flexor surface is on the caudal side. Inside joint are lateral and medial glenohumeral ligaments

82

Lateral and medial glenohumeral ligaments

Poorly developed thickenings of the inner shoulder joint on the shoulder capsule

83

Transverse humeral retinaculum

Collagenous thickening across the tendon origin of the biceps

84

Elbow joint flexor surface

Is on the cranial side of the limb

85

Lateral and medial collateral ligaments

Pronounced thickenings in the fibrous layer of the capsule of the elbow joint. Prevent adduction or abduction of the elbow

86

Interosseous ligament

Unites the radius and the ulna

87

Antebrachiocarpal joint flexor surface

Flexor surface is caudal. Articulation of the ulna and ulnar carpal and the radius and the intermedioradial carpal. Very fibrous. The palmar carpal ligament lies on the palmar side.

88

Middle carpal joint

Between the two rows of carpal bones. Flexor surface is caudal.

89

Carpometacarpal joint

Between the distal carpals and the metacarpals


90

Palmar carpal ligament

Dense fibrous tissue covering the palmar aspect of the carpus and the antebrachiocarpal joint.

91

Metacarpophalangeal joint

Between the metacarpals and the proximal phalanges

92

Proximal interphalangeal joint

Between proximal and middle phalanges

93

Distal interphalangeal joint

Between middle and distal phalanges

94

Extrinsic muscles of the forelimb (8)

Superficial pectorals
Deep pectoral
Brachiocephalicus
Omotransversarius
Trapezius
Rhomboideus
Latissimus Dorsi
Serratus ventralis

95

Intrinsic muscles of the forelimb - scapula to humerus (7)

Scapula to humerus
Deltoideus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Supraspinatus
Subscapularis
Teres major
Coracobrachialis

96

Intrinsic muscles of the forelimb - humerus to radius/ulna (7)

Humerus to radius/ulna
Tensor fasciae antebrachii
Triceps brachii (excepting the long head which reaches the scapula)
Anconeus
Biceps brachii
Brachialis
Supinator
Pronator teres

97

Intrinsic muscles of the forelimb - radius/ulna to carpus/digits (9)

Radius/ulna to carpus/digits
Extensor carpi radialis (technically from distal humerus)
Common digital extensor
Lateral digital extensor
Ulnaris lateralis
Abductor digiti I longus
Flexor carpi radialis
Superficial digital flexor
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Deep digital flexor

98

Muscle origin

The part of the muscle that moves the least during contraction. Can change in some muscles (often based on limb position). Often proximal.

99

Glenoid cavity is also known as?

The ventral border

100

Acromion

Origin of the deltoideus (1 of 2 origins)

101

Scapular spine

Proximoventrally to distodorsally:
Omotransversarius
Trapezius (insertion)
Deltoideus (2nd origin)

102

Supraspinous fossa

Supraspinatus origin

103

Infraspinous fossa

Infraspinatus origin

104

Serrated face

Serratus ventralis insertion

105

Subscapular fossa

Subscapularis origin

106

Cranial border of the scapula

Contains the scapular notch on the neck of the scapula, and widens to the cranial angle proximally. No direct muscle attachments.

107

Dorsal border of the scalpula

Capped by thick cartilage in life
Rhomboideus insertion

108

Intrinsic muscles of the forearm - specialized sectional (2)

Pronator quadratus (along interosseous membrane between the radius and the ulna)
Interossei (digit muscles)

109

What is strange about the attachments of the ulnaris lateralis?

The muscle is a flexor of the carpus and yet originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus where most of the extensors originate

110

Caudal border

Bears the infraglenoid tubercle and caudal angle
Subscapularis origin wraps around here on lateral side

111

Caudal angle of the scapula

Teres major origin

112

Infraglenoid tubercle

Teres major origin
Triceps brachii (long head) origin

113

Supraglenoid tubercle

Houses the coracoid process
Biceps brachii origin

114

Coracoid process

Coracobrachialis origin

115

Intertubecular groove

Humerus
Houses the tendon of the biceps brachii

116

Greater tubercle

Humerus
Supraspinatus insertion
Infraspinatus insertion
Deep pectoral insertion (part of)

117

Lesser tubercle

Humerus
Subscapularis insertion

118

Cranial surface of the humerus (distal 2/3)

Brachiocephalicus insertion (part of)
Pectoral insertion (part of)

119

Crest of the greater tubercle

Can be considered a proximal continuation of the cranial surface of the humerus
Pectorals insertion (part of)
Cleidobrachialis insertion (part of)

120

Lateral surface of the humerus

Houses (proximodistally) the greater tubercle, tricipital line, deltoid tuberosity, and the brachialis groove.

121

Deltoid tuberosity

Insertion of the deltoideus. Lateral side.

122

Tricipital line

Triceps brachii origin (lateral head)

123

Tuberosity of the teres minor

Lateral side between greater tubercle and tricipital line
Teres minor inserts

124

Brachialis groove

Brachialis origin

125

Lateral supracondylar crest

Extensor carpi radialis origin
Anaconeus origin (part of )

126

Tuberosity of the teres major

Latissimus Dorsi insertion
Teres major insertion

127

Medial surface of the humerus

Houses lesser tubercle, teres major tuberosity, smooth on distal half until the medial epicondyle
Smooth part:
Medial head of the triceps brachii origin
Coracobrachialis insertion

128

Humeral condyle

Includes the trochlea (medial) and capitulum (lateral), lateral and medial epicondyles, and both radial and olecranon fossae on the cranial and caudal surface

129

Lateral epicondyle of the humerus

Most origins for the extensors of carpus and digits
Common digital extensor
Lateral digital extensor
Ulnaris lateralis
Supinator
Origin for lateral collateral ligament of the elbow also.

130

Medial epicondyle of the humerus

Most origins of the flexors of the carpus and digits
Anconeus origin (part of)
Flexor carpi radialis
Flexor carpi ulnaris (both heads)
Pronator teres
Superficial digital flexor
Deep digital flexor
Origin for medial collateral ligament of the elbow.

131

Supratrochlear foramen - dogs vs cats

In dog - sits in radial and olecranon fossae with no soft tissue passing through it
In cat - called the supracondylar foramen and contains the median nerve and brachial artery

132

Radial tuberosity

Medial border of the radius
Biceps brachii insertion
Brachialis insertion

133

Articular circumferences of the radius with the ulna?

Radius: proximal articular circumference
Distal ulnar notch
Ulna: proximal radial notch (proximal ulna is bigger in general)
Distal articular circumference

134

Caudal surface of the radius

Roughened surface - houses the interosseous membrane which connects to the cranial surface of the ulna

135

Styloid process of the radial trochlea

Origin of the medial collateral ligament of the carpus
Houses tendon of abductor digiti I longus
Houses tendon of the common digital extensor

136

Olecranon

Olecranon tuber and anaconeal process
Lever arm for the extensor muscles of the elbow - caudal side
Insertion of triceps brachii (tuber)
Insertion of tensor fasciae antebrachii (tuber)
Insertion of anconeus (tuber in dogs)
Origin of flexor carpi ulnaris and deep digital flexor medially

137

Ulnar tuberosity

Medial side of the ulna.
Insertion of the biceps brachii (part of)
Insertion of the brachialis (part of)

138

Interosseous membrane

Thick ligament between the radius and the ulna.
Attachment for the pronator quadratus (also will attach directly to the bone)

139

Styloid process of the ulna

Important for articulation but no major muscular attachments

140

Coronoid processes

Ulnar, form the borders of the trochlear notch.

141

Accessory carpal

Lateral side of the carpus
Lever arm for flexor muscle of the carpus

142

Base, head, and body of the metacarpals and phalanges

Base is most proximal and contains sagittal groove
Head is most distal and contains sagittal ridge

143

Metacarpals

Numbered from one on the lateral side
Interossei are palmar between bones

144

Extensor processes of the distal phalanges

Dorsal, near ungual crest

145

Flexor tubercles of the distal phalanges

Palmar close to the ungual crest