Dog Hindlimb Flashcards Preview

Anatomy I (Fall) > Dog Hindlimb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dog Hindlimb Deck (164):
1

Superficial gluteal fascia

Continuation of the superficial trunk fascia on the dorsal surface over the pelvis. Contains an aponeurosis from which the cutaneus trunci arises.

2

Superficial caudal fascia

Continuation of the superficial gluteal fascia onto the tail

3

Superficial Lamina of the fascia lata

Continuation of the superficial gluteal fascia distally down the limb

4

Thoracolumbar fascia

Part of the deep fascia of the trunk, well developed in the lumbar region over the spine.

5

Deep gluteal fascia

Continuation of the thoracolumbar fascia from the iliac crest and caudal over the pelvis

6

Deep caudal fascia

Continuation of the deep gluteal fascia onto the tail and caudally down.

7

Medial femoral fascia

Thin Continuation of the deep gluteal fascia onto the medial side of the thigh

8

Fascia lata

Aka the lateral femoral fascia
Thick, covers the lateral surface of the thigh. A continuation of the deep gluteal fascia.

9

Crural fascia

Continuation of the fascia lata and medial femoral fascia past the thigh and distally down the leg

10

Biceps femoris

O: sacrotuberous ligament
Ishchiatic tuberosity
I: fascia lata and crural fascia (to patella and cranial border of tibia)
Tuber calcanei via common calcanean tendon
A: extend the hip, stifle, and hock
Caudal part of the muscle flexes the stifle
In: sciatic nerve

11

Sacrotuberous ligament

Origin of the biceps femoris
Runs from the ishiatic tuberosity to the sacrum

12

Popliteal lymph node

Palpable on the live dog
Lying in fat directly caudal to the stifle

13

Common calcanean tendon

Heavy part of the fascia inside the crural fascia and connecting to the tuber calcanei

14

Semitendinosus

O: ischiatic tuberosity
I: distocranial border of the tibia
Tibial tuberosity
Tuber calcanei through crural fascia
A: extend the hip and hock
Flex the stifle
In: sciatic nerve

15

Semimembranosus

O: ischiatic tuberosity
I: distal medial lip of caudal femur
Medial condyle of the tibia
A: extend the hip
Femur belly = extends stifle
Tibia belly = can extend or flex the stifle depending on limb position
In: sciatic nerve

16

Sartorius

Cranial part (shorter)
O: crest of the ilium and thoracolumbar fascia
I: patella
Caudal part (longer)
O: cranial ventral iliac spine and ventral border of ilium
I: cranial border of the tibia
A: flex the hip
Cranial part extends the stifle
Caudal part flexes the stifle
In: femoral nerve

17

Gracilis

O: symphysial tendon to pelvic symphysis
I: cranial border of the tibia
Tuber calcanei
Ac: adduct the limb
Flex the stifle
Extend the hip and hock
In: obturator nerve

18

Symphysial tendon

Thick, flat tendon attached ventrally to the symphysis pelvis

19

Superficial fascia of the trunk

Over the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, just deep to dermis and superficial to the areolar tissue

20

Femoral triangle

Shallow superficial triangular space between the sartorius and the pectineus which contains the femoral artery (cranial) and the femoral vein (caudal)

21

Pectineus

O: Iliopubic eminence and the pubic tubercle via the prepubic tendon
I: medial lip of femur's rough surface (distal portion)
A: adduct the limb
In: obturator nerve

22

Adductor

Two muscles : adductor longus (cranial) and adductor magnus et brevis
O: pelvic symphysis (via symphysial tendon)
Ischiatic arch
Ventral surface of ilium and pubis between two origins
I: lateral lip or femur's rough surface
A: adduct limb and extend the hip
In: obturator nerve

23

Tensor fasciae latae

Two parts - cranial and caudal
O: tuber coxae and adjacent part of ilium
Aponeurosis of the middle gluteal muscle
I: fascia lata
A: tense the fascia lata
Flex the hip
Extend the stifle
In: cranial gluteal nerve

24

Superficial gluteal

O: lateral border of sacrum and first caudal vertebrae by means of the sacrotuberous ligament
Cranial dorsal iliac spine by means of deep gluteal fascia
I: third trochanter
A: extend the hip
Abduct the limb
In: caudal gluteal nerve

25

Middle gluteal

O: iliac crest and gluteal surface
I: greater trochanter
A: extend and abduct the hip and rotate limb medially
In: cranial gluteal nerve

26

Piriformis

The deep caudal portion of the middle gluteal muscle

27

Deep gluteal

O: body of the ilium and the ischiatic spine
I: cranial aspect of greater trochanter
A: extend and abduct the limb
Rotate the limb medially
In: cranial gluteal nerve

28

ArticularIis coxae

Attachments: ilium (lateral area for the rectus femoris) and neck of the femur.

29

Internal obturator

Internal on the PELVIS (inside the canal)
O: symphysis pelvis
Dorsal surface of the ischium and pubis
I: trochanteric fossa
A: rotate the limb laterally at the hip
In: sciatic nerve

30

Gemelli

O: lateral surface of the ischium
I: trochanteric fossa
A: rotate the limb laterally at the hip
In: sciatic nerve

31

Quadratus femoris

O: ventral surface of the caudal pubis
I: intertrochanteric crest
A: extend the hip and rotate the limb laterally at the hip
In: sciatic nerve

32

External obturator

External to the pelvis
O: ventral surface of the pubis and ischium
I: trochanteric fossa
A: rotate the limb laterally at the hip
In: obturator nerve

33

Patella

Sesmoid bone intercalculated into the tendon insertion of the quadriceps. Articulates with the trochlea of the femur

34

Patellar ligament

Extends from the patella to the tibial tuberosity, the distal end of the tendon of quadriceps insertion.

35

Rectus femoris

Part of the quadriceps femoris (most cranial)
O: lateral area for the rectus femoris (ilium)
I: tibial tuberosity
A: extends the stifle
Flexes the hip
In: femoral nerve

36

Vastus lateralis

Part of the quadriceps
O: lateral lip of the rough surface (proximal)
I: tibial tuberosity
A: extend the stifle
In: femoral nerve

37

Vastus intermedius

Part of the quadriceps femoris
O: with vastus lateralis (proximal lateral lip)
I: tibial tuberosity
A: extend the stifle
In: femoral nerve

38

Vastus medialis

Part of the quadriceps femoris
O: proximedial of femur and medial lip of the rough surface
I: tibial tuberosity
A: extend the stifle
In: femoral nerve

39

Iliopsoas

Just see the end on the hindlimb -huge spinal muscle. Two parts: Psoas major (lumbar spines) and ilicus (entirely on the ilium).
O: psoas major on the lumbar vertebrae
Iliacus on the cranioventral ilium
I: lesser trochanter
A: flex the hip (major flexor)
In: ventral branches of the lumbar spinal nerves and femoral nerve

40

Crural extensor retinaculum

Oblique retinaculum from the distal third of the fibula to the medial malleolus. Holds the tendons of the digital extensors

41

Superficial tarsal, metatarsal, and digital fasciae

Continuations of the superficial crural fascia over the pes

42

Tarsal extensor retinaculum

Fibrous loop that attaches to the tuber calcanei
Wraps around the tendon of the long digital extensor

43

Cranial tibial

O: extensor groove and articular margin of the tibia
Lateral edge of the cranial tibial border
I: plantar bases of metatarsals I and II
A: flex the tarsocrural joint
Rotate the paw laterally
In: fibular nerve

44

Long digital extensor

O: extensor fossa of the femur
I: extensor processes of II, III, IV and V
A: extend the digits and flex the tarsus
In: fibular nerve

45

Fibularis longus

O: lateral condyle and proximal end of the tibia
Lateral epicondyle of the femur by lateral collateral ligament of the stifle
I: fourth tarsal bone and plantar bases of metatarsals
A: flex the tarsus
Rotate the paw medially
In: fibular nerve

46

Gastrocnemius

Lateral (large) head
O: lateral supracondylar tuberosity of the femur
Medial (small) head
O: medial supracondylar tuberosity of the femur
I: tuber calcanei via the major portion of the common calcanean tendon
A: extend the tarsus and flex the stifle
In: tibial nerve

47

Superficial digital flexor

O: lateral supracondylar tuberosity of the femur
I: tuber calcanei and bases of middle phalanges II - V
A: flex proximal two digital joints
Flex the stifle
Extend the tarsus
In: tibial nerve

48

Calcaneal bursa

Filled with synovial fluid and on the tuber calcanei, formed mostly by the tendon of the superficial digital flexor

49

Deep digital flexor

Lateral head (lateral digital flexor) and Medial head (medial digital flexor)
O: caudal proximal 2/3 of tibia
Proximal 1/2 of fibula
Interosseous membrane
I: flexor tubercles of the distal phalanges
A: flex the digits and extend the tarsus
In: tibial nerve

50

Flexor retinaculum

Thick fibrous material that surrounds the tendon of deep digital flexor and binds it in the groove over the sustenaculum tali of the calcaneus

51

Popliteus

O: lateral epicondyle of the femur
I: proximal third of the caudal tibia
A: rotate the leg medially (leg - just calve)
In: tibial nerve

52

Ischiorectal fossa

Depression between the tail and the anus

53

Popliteal sesmoid

Medial to the lateral collateral ligament next to the popliteus tendon of origin

54

What are the components of the common calcanean tendon?

1. Gastrocnemius - main component
2. Superficial digital flexor - large component
3. biceps femoris
4. semitendonosis
5. gracilis

55

How are the femoral artery and vein oriented?

Vein is caudal to the artery.

56

Why does the tarsal joint have supinators and pronators?

Act to prevent slipping on uneven ground while walking on the digits. Do not actually supinate or pronate the paw - very limited range of motion there.

57

Which muscles rotate the hindlimb medially?

Deep and superficial gluteals

58

Which muscles rotate the hindlimb laterally?

Obturator muscles.

59

Lateral rotators of the hip

Internal obturator
External obturator
Gemelli
Quadratus femoris

60

Medial rotators of the hip

Deep and medial gluteal muscles

61

Sacroiliac joint

Between the ilium and the sacrum - stability not mobility. Fibrocartilagenous joint.

62

Dorsal and ventral sacroiliac ligaments

Bands of strong collagenous tissue that reinforce the fibrocartilage of the sacroiliac joint.

63

Hip joint

Ball and socket, three planes of movement. Medial and lateral rotator muscles are antagonists to help limit movement to the cranial/caudal plane.

64

Ligament of the femoral head

From the fovea capitis femoris on the head of the femur to the acetabular fossa.

65

Transverse acetabular ligament

From one side to the other side of the acetabular notch to hold the ball of the joint in place.

66

Acetabular lip

Continuation of the transverse acetabular ligament which deepens the acetabulum and forms a fibrocartilagenous border around it.

67

Stifle joint

Three joint capsules - two between the femoral/tibial condyles (femorotibial joint sacs) and one beneath the patella (femoropatellar joint sac). Large - contain the meniscus and cover the fabella, tendon of the long digital extensor, and tendon of origin of the popliteus.

68

Meniscus

Aka semilunar fibrocartilage. Develops in the stifle joint and compensate for the incongruence between the tibial and femoral condyles.

69

Medial and lateral femoropatellar ligaments

Thin fascial bands extending between the patella and the gastrconemial sesmoid on each side.

70

Cranial and caudal meniscotibial ligaments.

Connects the menisci to the intercondylar areas of the tibia.

71

Transverse ligament

Connects the cranial ends of the menisci

72

Meniscofemoral ligament

Caudal part of the lateral meniscus attached to the incondylar fossa of the femur. Caudal to the caudal cruciate.

73

Femorotibial ligaments

Collateral and cruciate ligaments combined

74

Medial collateral ligament

Medial epicondyle of the femur to medial side of the tibia.

75

Lateral collateral ligament

Lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula and the lateral condyle of the tibia.

76

Cranial cruciate ligament

Runs distocranially. Intercondylar fossa of the femur to the caudomedial part of the lateral condyle. Attaches at the cranial intercondylar area of the tibia. Keeps the tibia from sliding cranially and limits medial rotation of the tibia while bearing weight.

77

caudal cruciate ligament

Intercondylar fossa of the femur to the medial condyle of the femur. Attaches to popliteal notch (medial) behind the caudal attachment of the medial meniscus. Prevents tibia from sliding caudally while bearing weight.

78

Tibiofibular joints

Prox and distal. Between the head of the fibula and the tibia, not movable. Interosseous membrane of the crus between the two prevents a great deal of supination.

79

Tarsal joint

Tib/fib to calcaneus and talus
Composition of several articulations and joint sacs, largest of which is cochlea of the tibia with the talus and calcaneus.

80

Os coxae

One hip bone

81

Ilium

Most cranial, largest section of the pelvis. Two parts: wing and body.

82

Ischium

Most caudal, second largest section of the pelvis. Four parts: Tuberosity, body, table, and ramus.

83

Pubis

Most ventral, smallest section of the pelvis. Three parts: body and two rami.

84

Acetabulum

Socket in which the ilium, ischium, and pubis all meet. Ligament of the femoral head.

85

Pelvic canal

Short ventrally and long dorsally.

86

Pelvic inlet

Start of the pelvic canal. Ventral side between the arcuate lines

87

Pelvic outlet

Start of the pelvic canal. Nearest to ischiatic arch.

88

Ischiatic arch

Concave caudal border of the two ischii along the pelvis symphysis.

89

Iliac crest

Arciform cranial border of the ilium.

90

Cranial ventral iliac spine

Also known as the tuber coax
Origin for both bellies of the sartorius
Origin for part of the tensor fasciae latae

91

Lateral area for the rectus femoris

End of the arcuate line of the ilium, small round projection just cranial to the acetabulum. Origin of rectus femoris.

92

Arcuate line

Caudal half of the ventral iliac spine.

93

Cranial dorsal iliac spine.

Half of tuber sacrale.

94

Caudal dorsal iliac spine

Half of tuber sacral.

95

Tuber sacrale

Cranial and caudal dorsal iliac spines combined.

96

Greater ischiatic notch

Just caudal to the tuber sacrale.

97

Body of the ilium

Bounded by the arcuate line and the greater ischiatic notch.

98

Gluteal surface

Indentation on lateral side of the wing of the ilium. Attachment for middle gluteal and part of the deep gluteal.

99

Sacropelvic surface

medial side of the wing of the ilium. Attachment: Iliocostalis, longissimus, and quadratus lumborum.

100

Auricular surface of the ilium

Articulates with the same surface of the sacrum to form the fibrocartilagenous sacroiliac joint.

101

Arcuate line

Ilium. Ventral to the tuber coxae (cranial ventral iliac spine). Attachment for the tendon of the psoas minor.

102

Ischiatic tuberosity

Thick caudolateral margin of the ischium on either side of the ischiatic arch. Attachment for the sacrotuberous ligament, biceps femoris, semitendinosis, semimembranosis. Also the attachment for the crus of the penis and surrounding muscle.

103

Body of the ischium

Lateral to the obturator foramen

104

Ischiatic spine

Rounded crest dorsal to the acetabulum where the ischium meets ilium. Attachment for the coccygeus.

105

Lesser ischiatic notch

Caudal to the ischiatic spine.
Where tendon of the internal obturator arises s well as the two gemelli.

106

Ramus of the ischium

Thin and wide, medial to the obturator foramen and blending into the ilium, contains the symphysis pubis.
Ventral = part of the attachment for the gracilis, adductor, and external obturator with the caudal ramus of the pubis.

107

Ischiatic table

Flat portion of the ischium where the ramus meets the body. Origin of the internal obturator dorsally and origin of the external obturator and quadratus femoris ventrally.

108

Ischiatic arch

Formed by the symphysis pelvis and the two medial portions of the ischii.

109

Body of the pubis

cranial to the obturator foramen with part of the pubis symphysis.

110

Cranial ramus of the pubis

Body of the pubis to the acetabulum

111

Caudal ramus of the pubis

Fuses with the ischial ramus at the middle of the pelvic symphysis.
Ventral = part of the attachment for the gracilis, adductor, and external obturator with the ramus of the ischium.
Dorsal = internal obturator and levator ani

112

Obturator sulcus

Groove in the foramen for the obturator nerve.

113

Iliopubic eminence

Projects from the cranial ramus of the pubis. Attachment for the pectineus.

114

Pubic tubercle

On the midline of the pelvis, just medial to the iliopubic eminence. Attaches to the pectineus via the prepubic tendon.

115

Pecten

Roughened cranial border of the of the pubis between the iliopubic eminence and the pubic tubercle. Attachement of the prepubic tendon.

116

Acetabular notch

Break in the uniform surface of the acetabulum, closed in life by the transverse acetabular ligament. Non-articular part of the acetabulum.

117

Acetabular fossa

Attachment for the ligament of the head of the femur, bounded by the acetabular notch. Non-articular part of the acetabulum.

118

Obturator foramen

Formed by the ischium and the pubis. Closed in life by the obturator membrane that separates the (ventral) external and (dorsal) internal obturator muscles.

119

Head of the femur

Nearly hemispherical, three planes of motion with the acetabulum.

120

Fovea capitus femoris

Irregularity on the caudomedial side of the femoral head. Attachment for the ligament of the femoral head.

121

Neck of the femur

Attachment of the head to the rest of the femur. Attachment of the joint capsule.

122

Greater trochanter

Lateral to the head of the femur. Attachment for the middle and the deep gluteal muscles.

123

Lesser trochanter

Medial side of the femur. Insertion of the iliopsoas.

124

Trochanteric fossa

Deep cavity between the head of the femur and the greater trochanter. Insertion for the gemelli, and external and internal obturator muscles.

125

Third trochanter

Directly under the greater trochanter. Insertion for the superficial gluteal muscle. Vastus parts of the quadriceps will attach to the smooth part of the femur just below this trochanter.

126

Intertrochanteric crest

Between the greater and lesser trochanters. Insertion of the quadratus femoris.

127

Medial lip of the rough surface of the femur

Proximal: Semimembranosis
Distal: Pectineus

128

Lateral lip of the rough surface of the femur

Attachment of the adductor gratis et brevis.

129

Trochlea of the femur

For articulation of the patella. Medial trochlear ridge is thicker than that of the lateral trochlear ridge.

130

Patella

Sesmoid in the tendon of insertion of the quadriceps femoris. Protection, but also redirects the tendon to prevent shearing forces.

131

Medial and lateral condyle of the femur

Articulations with the condyles of the tibia.

132

Intercondylar fossa of the femur

Attachment of the cruciate ligaments, which are named for the areas on which they attach to the tibia.

133

Fabella

Sesmoid bones on the caudal side of the femur that are in the tendons of origin of the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle.

134

Medial and lateral supracondylar tuberosities of the femur

Proximal to the fabella, origin of the gastrocnemius. Lateral tuberosity is the origin of the superficial digital flexor

135

Popliteal surface

Femur, between the supracondylar tuberosities.

136

Medial and lateral epicondyles of the femur

Just rough areas on the femur. Attachment for the lateral and medial collateral ligaments of the stifle. Lateral epicondyle is the origin of the popliteus. Medial epicondyle is insertion of the semimembranosis.

137

Extensor fossa

Femur on the lateral epicondyle. Origin of the tendon of the long digitial extensor.

138

Medial and lateral condyles of the tibia

Flat condyles attached to the meniscus of the stifle joint. Lateral condyle = origin for the fibulas longs and cranial tibial. Medial condyle = insertion of the semimembranosis.

139

Intercondylar eminence

Separates the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia.

140

Cranial intercondylar area

Cranial part of the intercondylar eminence. Attachments for cranial parts of the menisci and the cranial cruciate ligament.

141

caudal intercondylar area

Caudal part of the intercondylar eminence. Attachment for the caudal part of the menisci.

142

Popliteal notch

Tibia. Popliteal vessles pass through this notch.

143

Tibial tuberosity

Attachments for the quadriceps femoris, biceps femoris, and the sartorius all attach here via the patella and the patellar ligament.

144

Cranial border of the tibia

Attachments to the biceps femoris, semitendinosis, gracilis, and sartorius.

145

Extensor groove

Tibia. Between the junction of the lateral condyle and the tibial tuberosity and holds the tendon of the long digital extensor.

146

Body of the tibia

Medial surface: semitendinosis and gracilis
caudal surface: insertion of popliteus, origin of deep digital flexor.
Lateral surface: NO MUSCLES
Distal half: NO MUSCLES

147

Tibial cochlea

Surface that articulates with the trochlea of the talus.

148

Medial malleolus

On the tibia

149

Lateral malleolus

On the fibula. Two grooves that contain the tendons of the fibularis longus, fibulas brevis, and the lateral digital extensor.

150

Body of the fibula

Origin of the deep digital flexor

151

Calcaneus

Has the tuber calcanei and sustentaculum tali which articulates with the talus

152

Talus

Has the trochlea for articulation.

153

Tuber calcanei

Connection to the common calcanean tendon which leads to the extensor muscles of the hock.

154

Central tarsal bones

Between the talus and the distal tarsal bones

155

Metatarsals and phlanges of the crus

II to IV on most dogs. Some have a residual digit I.

156

Pes

Hindpaw

157

Hallux

First digit of the pes, absent most of the time or vestigal.

158

Caudal thigh muscles (3)

Biceps femoris
Semitendinosis
Semimembranosis
Generalized actions: Flex the stifle and extend the hip and hock.

159

Medial thigh muscles (3)

Sartorius
Gracilis
Adductor
Pectineus
Generalized actions: Adduct the limb, flex (sartorius) or extend (adductor) the hip

160

Lateral pelvis muscles (4)

Tensor fasciae latae
Superficial gluteal
Middle gluteal
Deep gluteal
Generalized actions: Abduct and medially rotate the limb, extend the hip.

161

Caudal hip muscles (4)

Internal obturator
Gemelli
Quadratus femoris
External obturator
Generalized actions: laterally rotate the limb

162

Cranial thigh muscles (3)

Quadriceps femoris
Iliopsoas
Sartorius
Generalized actions: Extend the stifle, flex the hip.

163

Craniolateral leg muscles (3)

Cranial tibial
Long digital extensor
Fibularis longus
Generalized actions: Flex the tarsus and extend the digits.

164

Caudal leg muscles (4)

Gastrocnemius
Superficial digital flexor
Deep digital flexors
Popliteus
Generalized actions: Extend the tarsus and flex the digits.