Downing: Histology of the Oral Cavity and Esophagus Flashcards Preview

GI- Week 1 > Downing: Histology of the Oral Cavity and Esophagus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Downing: Histology of the Oral Cavity and Esophagus Deck (61):
1

What forms the inner lining of tubular organs?

Mucosa

2

What are the four components of the mucosa?

Epithelium
BM
Lamina propria
Muscularis mucosa

3

What is the muscularis mucosa composed of?

Smooth muscle (can lack or be replaced by elastic fibers)

4

What composes the submucosa?

Loose connective tissue
Glands
Large blood vessels
Submucosal nerve plexus

5

What composes the supporting wall?

Smooth or skeletal muscle, bone or cartilage (muscle is several different oriented layers)

6

What composes the adventitia?

Lose CT

7

What are the surface features of the lip?

1. Cutaneous area- stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium (sweat glands, hair)
2. Red area- stratified squamous non-keratinizing (papilla)
3. Oral mucosa- stratified squamousn on-keratinizing (glands)

8

What does the submucosa of the lip contain?

not distinguishable b/c blends w/ the mucosa
mixed glands

9

What does the supporting wall of the lip contain?

skeletal muscle of the orbicularis oris

10

Describe the structure of the cheek.

1. Mucosa and submucosa- like hte lip, ELASTIC tissue in submucosa

2. Supporting wall- BUCCINATOR

11

Describe the structure of the hard palate.

1. Mucosa- st. sq. keratinizing, LP (papilla w/ vascular core)
2. Submucosa- absent in midline, anterior 1/2 FAT, posterior 2/3 mucus glands
3. Supporting wall- BONE

12

Describe the structure of the soft palate.

1. Mucosa- st. sq. keratinizing (oral) and pseudostratified columnar ciliated (nasal) + LP
2. Submucosa- mixed glands
3. Supporting wall- skeletal muscle and connective tissue

13

What is on the ventral surface of the tongue?

stratified sq. non-keratinizing
mixed glands beneath epithelium

14

What is on the dorsal surface of the tongue?

1. Mucosa- st. sq. keratinizing, LP forms papillae
2. Skeletal muscle in three planes
3. Nerve supply

15

Where are serous glands found in the mucosa of the tongue?

below the circumvallate papillae

16

Where are mucous glands found in the tongue?

tonsillar crypts

17

What supplies the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

CN V and VII

18

What supplies the posterior 2/3 of the tongue?

IX and X

19

What are the most numerous papillae of the tongue?

Filiform
PARALLEL rows across tongue
keratinization most obvious near apical portion

20

What are the fewest papillae of the tongue and where are they located?

fungiform
TIP of tongue

21

What shape do the fungiform papillae have?

CLUB shaped
Appear as RED structures

22

Where are taste buds on the tongue found?

In the epithelium--NOT numerous

23

What nerve supplies the taste buds?

7th

24

What papillae are found adjacent to the sulcus temrinalis?

Circumvallate papillae

25

Why are circumvallate papillae like a turreted castle?

Each are surrounded by a moat or trench

26

What are found on the sides of circumvallate papillae? What CN supplies them?

taste buds

CN 9

27

What are the glands of von ebner? What do

Serous glands in the LP of the circumvallate papillae EMPTY into the trench and wash out the area

28

What are the foliate papillae?

poorly developed in humans, taste buds associated w/ the epithelium of hte circumvallate papillae

29

What are the three types of cells that make up the taste buds?

1. Sustentacular- long, thin, project into taste pore
2. Taste receptor cells- long thin, project into taste poor
3. Basal cells- give rise to the first two!

30

What do taste buds do?

perceive taste (salt sweet sour bitter)

31

How long do your taste buds last?

Constant turn over

sectioning of nerves in taste buds > degeneration and disappearance of taste buds> buds regenerate in 10 days when nerve is reconnected and nerve fibers are regenerated

32

What produces enamel and what does it consist of?

Ameloblasts
3% protein and 97% mineral

33

What produces dentin?

odontoblasts
30% organic matter
70% mineral

34

What produces cementum? What does it do?

cementoblasts
Anchors tooth to peridontal ligament

35

What produces the peridontal ligament? What does it do?

fibroblasts
Anchors tooth to alveolar bone

36

What is the origin of the dental lamina?

ectodermal (NCC)

37

What does the dental lamina give rise to?

enamel (primary teeth)

38

What is the origin of the dental papilla?

mesodermal

39

What gives rise to cells which form dentin?

Dental papilla (primary teetch)

40

What separates the lip and cheek from developing gums and teeth?

labial lamina

41

What do the tooth germs for permanent tooth develop from?

dental lamina on lingual side of primary teeth

42

What is the difference between ameloblasts and odontoblasts?

Ameloblasts: develop from dental lamina, produce enamel during tooth growth, but are lost w/ tooth development

Odontoblasts: develop from dental papilla, produce dentin during tooth growth and some throughout life

43

What are hte major salivary glands?

parotid
submandibular
sublingual

44

What are the minor salivary glands?

mucous serous glands in lamina propria and submucosa of oral cavity

45

How much saliva do humans produce?

1000-1500 ml saliva/day

46

What are the functions of saliva?

lubrication and moistening

WASHES mouth of debris

MOISTENS food for easy swallowing and tasting

ENZYMES initiate digestion

47

What is the morphology of salivary glands?

CT capsule (esp parotid)

Divided into lobes and lobules

48

Excretory duct

Interlobar/interlobular areas supported by CT

Stratifed sq non-keritenizing epithelium in oral cavity but most is SIMPLE COLUMNAR w/ some stratified columanr/cuboidal

49

Striated duct

Lobule

simple columnar or high cuboidal

STRIATIONS ARE EOSINOPHILIC

50

Intercalated duct

lobule

cuboidal or low cuboidal

no striations

narrow lumen

51

What is the difference between mucous and serous alveolus?

both are cuboidal or columnar

mucous- nuclei compressed near base of cell

serous- distinct nuclei

52

What are the myoepithelial cells?

Specialized smooth muscle cells BETWEN serous and mucous cells

help to PUSH PRODUCT into the duct system

53

What are demilunes?

Secretory units that contain both serous and mucous cells

formed by SEROUS secreting cells

occupy the BLIND END of the secretory unit

54

What are characteristics of the parotid gland?

Well defined capsule w/ CT btween

FATTY TISSUE

Striated and intercalated are prominent

Acini: almost 100% SEROUS

55

What are the characteristics of the submandibular gland?

CT present but not as well defined as parotid

STRIATED DUCTS well defined but not intercalated

Acini: 10-25% mucous (capped by demilunes), but majority SEROUS

56

What are the characteristics of the sublingual gland?

Indistinct capsule

Excretory ducts prominent

Striated ducts not prevalent in tissue w/ no intercalated ducts

Acini are 75% MUCOUS CELLS w/ majority serous demilunes

57

Describe the mucosa of the esophagus.

Stratified sq. non-keratinizing (replaced every 2-3 days)

LP (mucous glands)

Muscularis mucosa (smooth muscle fibers)

58

Mucous glands in the lamina propria of the mucosa are prominent in what parts of the esophagus?

cardiac glands in the UPPER and LOWER thirds

59

Where are the mucous secreting glands in the submucos? What plexus is found there?

MIDDLE THIRD

Submucosal nerve plexus

60

How does the muscularis externa differ in the upper, middle and lower parts of the esophagus?

Upper- skeletal
middle- smooth w/ some skeletal
lower- smooth muscle

61

Where is the myenteric nerve plexus located?

Outer and inner layer