Flashcards in Skildum: GI case Deck (23):
Why evaluate nutritional status of a trauma pt?
Malnutrition delays wound healing.
Rapidly replenishing a malnourished pt can cause life threatening complications (i.e. Refeeding syndrome)
What is refeeding syndrome?
How do you evaluate the nutritional status of a pt?
PE: Chelosis- vit deficiencies,
BMI, muscle tone in fingers
24 hour urine/BUN
What impact does trauma have on nutritional requirements?
Pt needs more N for HEALING!
Trauma→ hypercatabolism→ needs more calories
Missing 70% of gut→ let it rest
How does trauma affect metabolism?
rapid INCREASE in metabolism
How can nutrition be delivered?
Parenteral (central line-TPN, peirpheral- PPN)
*higher conc of glucose w/out osmotic effect
What are complications of parenteral nutrition?
TPN requires close monitoring
Damage to veins from needle
Infectious complications (fat emulsifications are common sources of infection)
Metabolic complications (Re-feeding syndrome)
What are the three components of human energy expenditure?
1. BEE= this is the energy you expend when you're BEEing a bump on a log (AKA supine, after sleep, before eating, under stringent conditions)
2. Thermic Effect (energy expended in digesting and absorbing food)
3. Energy from physical activity
How does BMR differ from BEE?
Usually slightly higher and accounts for upright posture, being non-fasted.
What are our energy needs measured in?
What is REE/BMR based on ?
age, gender, size
What modifies REE/BMR?
How does severe stress affect TEE?
TEE= 1.2- 1.6(this number can change) xREE
mild stress 1.2
How much protein, carbs and FA are needed in a person recovering from trauma?
2x protein required in trauma recovery
fatty acids are “calorically dense”
ω3 and ω6 fatty acids--> eicosanoids
How much vitamins, minerals and electrolytes are needed?
Micronutrients may be depleted!
Burns--> copper depletion
What is the goal of TPN?
Swamp out pool of AA to maintain protein pool in skeletal muscle in the organs
How do you evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition program?
Calculate the pt's N balance
If it's positive: net gain of protein
Negative: net LOSS of protein
How do you calculate N balance?
Total the urinary urea N excreted over 24 hrs
NB= N intake (g) - urinary urea N (g) - 3 (g)
N intake: dietary, TPN, PPN
N excreted in urine: Urinary urea N
N excreted other: Urine, feces, sweat, sloughing skin cells
Normal N loss factor (through feces, sweat, sloughing of skin cells) is 2 g. How does it change for parenteral feeding or enteral feeding?
3g for parenteral feeding
4 g for enteral feeding
What if a pt recovering from trauma has a slightly negative N balance?
That's okay for the short term, though ideally a positive N balance is best.
A 24 year old female is brought to the emergency room 20 minutes after sustaining multiple serious fractures in a car accident.
The patient’s blood glucose concentration is 180 mg/dL (normal 70-100 mg/dL).
What provides the carbon for the patient’s elevated blood glucose concentration?
A 42 year old male is in the ICU following surgery to set a compound fracture in his leg. The patient is eating while he recovers. One day after surgery, four hours after his last meal, his blood glucose concentration is 165 mg/dL.
What explains the patient’s elevated blood glucose concentration?