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Infectious Agents 2 Exam 3 > Dr. Yan New > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dr. Yan New Deck (18):

Genomic characteristics of retrovirus

• Enveloped, positive sense, ssRNA, diploid (2 copies of RNA) 7-12 kb/each, 80-100nm


Which of the following are related to neoplastic viruses in chickens (know all of them from her lectures; most are retros, but some are herpes)

•Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV): chickens
•Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) : chickens, turkeys, and other avian species
•Marek’s Disease Virus (herpes virus)


Know the legalities surrounding equine infectious anemia (EIA)

•Equines over 6m of age need a neg coggins test within 12m of entering MS


Know what kind of lymphomas are caused by FeLV (goes everywhere in the body; not a place it doesn’t go)

•Goes to- Gut assoc lymph nodes, mediastinal (thymic), Multicentric lymph nodes
•Unclassified (don’t know what this means)- Eyes, skin, CNS


Select best answer about regulation of EIA in MS and when you start testing for that

•First retrovirus discovered and Coggins test?
• Equine (except nursing goals) entering MS, must have official copy of EIA test negative within 12 months
• May get an accurate Coggins test at 6 months old


Know clinical signs you find in EIA infection (how are you going to recognize and EIA horse clinically)

•Acute: fever, weight loss, anemia, edema, weakness, death in 2-3 weeks. EIA test negative
•Chronic: intermediate fever, lethargic, anorexic
•Inapparent: most EIA tests are positive, no overt clinical abnormalities


Know about proviruses

•Proviruses become transcribed and translated for the assembly of new viral progeny


Know about bovine leukemia virus and strategies to control it

•Persistent lifelong infection, progress to multicentric lymphosarcoma
o Horizontal: close/prolonged contact with bodily fluids, trauma, fomites, insects, etc.
o Vertical: infected fetus
•Clinical signs
o weight loss, anorexia, decreased milk production
o “Test and cull”
o Repeated testing of animals over 6 months of age (2-3 month intervals)
o Remove positive cattle immediately
o Isolate calves from infected dams


Know about replication defective retrovirus

•Transmitted by infectious particles
•Expression: yes
•has a defective genome
•requires helper for replication
•oncogene is present
•tumorgenicity: sarcoma, leukemia, or carcinoma after short incubation
•In vitro transformation: yes


Make a big list of all lentiviruses (grey weren’t mentioned in lecture)

•Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)
•Maedi/Visna (Ovine Progressive Pneumonia)
•Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV)
The rest were not mentioned in this lecture
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
•Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)
•Bovine Immunodeficiency virus (BIV)
•Puma lentivirus, Lion lentivirus
•Visna virus (sheep)
•Jembrana disease (cattle)
•Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)


Be able to define a prion and what it is

Proteinaceous infectious particles with no nucleic acids that can replicate by themselves. They are as small as 30 nm, and are highly variable based on strain


Know all about Chronic wasting disease (side note: if you pass this through a rodent or pocket pet, it becomes infectious in humans)

•CWD: Progressive, fatal neurological disease of captive and/or free-ranging mule deer, mule deer hybrids, black tailed deer, white-tailed deer, Rocky Mountain Elk in NA
•1980 1st CWD: captive mule deer in Colorado
•Mule deer: 1-14.3%; Elk 1-2.4%; moose 1%
•25 states of US including MS
•Wild animals: import infected animals from states with CWD
•Clinical signs: weight loss, lose appetite, salicate, polydipsia, grind teeth, polyuria, stay away herds, walk in patterns, carry head low, die after a few months with clinical signs
•Histologic lesions: spongiform change of brain, neuronal vacuolation, astrocytic hypertrophy, hyperplasia, microgliosis
•CWD infected cervids harbor prion aggregates in many extracerebral organs: pancreas, adrenal glands, peripheral nerves, muscles, lymphoid tissues throughout the body
•Lymph node, tonsils, peyer’s patches contain prions within 3 months post-oral exposure, detected in dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve by 6 months
•Transmission: feces, saliva, urine from prion-infected deer and vertical transmission
•Jan 25th, 2018 Issaquena County, positive for CWD 1st case in MS
•Already found in 24 other states
•Affect: feeding, trapping, surveys


Know about the prion diseases

•Movement through cows into humans?
•Ingestion of CNS material from beef products


Know which prion is in sheep



Know how to inactivate a prion

Only one good way: incineration will inactivate them


Know what is prohibited in the human food chain with regard to cattle

CNS material (brain/spinal cord)


Know how these prions are transmitted

•BSE transmission: oral or intracerebral route (exported meat-and-bone meal & breeding cattle)
•Transmissible mink encephalopathy: food borne
•Chronic wasting disease: feces, saliva, urine from prion infected deer and vertical transmission
•Kuru: cannibalism
•Creutzfeldt jakob disease: transmitted iatrogenically-- contaminated neurosurgical instruments, dura mater and corner grafts, hormones
•Variant CJV: eating beef or exposure to infected cattle


Know about control of mad cow disease

•Exclusion of cattle meat, offal, etc from cattle feed products
•Culling of infected farm animals
•In disease free countries: import control and surveillance