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Infectious Agents 2 Exam 3 > Comrehensive Part > Flashcards

Flashcards in Comrehensive Part Deck (45):

Circo virus (match with their disease)

•Porcine circovirus (PCV-1) - None
•Porcine circovirus (PCV-2) - Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)
•Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) - Psittacines
•TT Virus (TTV) - Human posttransfusion hepatitis, uncertain pathogen


Herpes (match with their diseases)

•Bovine Herpesvirus type 1-Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR); encephalitic, respiratory, reproductive (infectious balanopostitis & pustular vulvo- vaginitis) forms
•Bovine Herpesvirus type 2 - Mammillitis Bovine
•Herpesvirus type 3- Malignant Catarrhal Fever, American & African* forms
•Pseudorabies virus- Aujeszky’s Disease - swine, respiratory, fetal death, abortions, mummies, high mortality in young. Highly fatal pruritis, paralysis in dogs, cats, ruminants, raccoons, rabbits, birds, et. al., but not horses or humans.
•Equine Herpesvirus type1and type 4 - Rhinopneumonitis; respiratory & reproductive
•Equine Herpesvirus type2 - Undetermined pathogenicity -pharyngitis of young horses
•Equine Herpesvirus type3 - Coitial Exanthema
•Herpes simiae, “B” virus - Old world monkeys - epithelial blisters; Humans - fatal encephalitis
•Marek’s Disease Virus - Oncogenic, neural, ocular, & visceral lymphomatosis
•Canine Herpesvirus - Fatal hemorrhagic disease of pups
•Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis Virus, Feline herpesvirus 1- Upper respiratory tract disease
•Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 - Oral blisters
•Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 - Genital blisters
•Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILT) - Upper respiratory tract disease


Asfarviridaes and irido viruses (match to their diseases)

•Asfarviridae=african swine fever
•Irido viruses=Redneck disease, lymphocystis disease


List of viruses we have vaccines for and which we do not (chicken pox is the only herpes virus in humans that has a vaccine) (simplex 1 does basically the same that simplex 2 does and causes death in neonatal children)

oClassic Swine Fever
oBovine herpesvirus 1 (not sure about 2)
oChicken anemia virus
oWNV (horses)
oCanine adenovirus
oRabies virus
oInfectious bronchitis of chickens (coronavirus)

•NO vaccine
oAfrican Swine Fever
oRanavirus (no economic interest for fish/amphibian diseases)
oHerpes simiae (and all other human herpes, EXCEPT chickenpox)
oBHV 3 (Malignant catarrhal fever)
oHendra virus, Nipah virus
oAll Caliciviruses


List of foreign animal disease viruses

•African Swine Fever (Asfarviridae)
•Bovine herpes virus 3→ african form
•Pseudorabies virus
•Infectious laryngotracheitis virus→ avian
•Marek’s disease virus→ avian
•Herpes Simiae B virus
•Herpes Simplex virus type 2
•Classical swine fever
•Foot and mouth disease
•Nipah Virus (paramyxoviridae)
•Hendra virus (paramyxoviridae)


West nile virus reservoirs

Passerine birds


Know about IgM capture ELISA tests for West nile virus

Use IgM Capture ELISA for DX


BVD Non-cytopathic strains inducing immunologic tolerance

Occurs when infection in utero between 80 and 125 days


Know about mucosal disease in same regard as #6 (BVD)

-Cow with non cytopathic disease mutates to cytopathic disease------> mucosal disease
-Superinfeciton of persistant infected animals with a cytopathic virus-----> mucosal disease


Know about foot and mouth disease in different species

•Oral lesions and excess salivation, drooling, serous nasal discharge in cattle
•Calves younger than 6 mo: possible mortality due to myocarditits
•Hoof lesions, snout vesicles in pigs; oral vesicles are less common
•Sheep and goats have mild clinical signs if they show any signs at all.
oCattle: best indicator
oPigs: best amplifier
oSheep: silent shedders


Best specimen for vesicular diseases (Foot and mouth)

The blister aspirate


What causes high mortality in calves with foot and mouth (a heart issue)

Myocarditis and myocardial necrosis in Calves w FMD


Know what FMD does in pigs

Hoof lesions more common, coronary band, interdig space


Know what FMD does in cattle

•Oral lesions (vesicles on tongue, dental pad, gums, soft palate, nostrils, muzzle)
•Excess salivation, drooling, serous nasal discharge


All body systems affected by canine distemper

Local lymphoid tissues to either 1. Systemic lymphoid tissues and then humoral and cellular immune response occurs and the animal recovered or 2. The respiratory, alimentary, urogenital tract, and CNS where the animal can either recover or die (of encephalitis because the virus hides out in the CNS)


Know about transmission of African swine fever virus

•Can be transmitted by almost anyway, but know specific ones (what are the specific ones?)
oSoft ticks/nidicolous ticks
oDirect contact with wild pigs (rare) or other domestic pigs
oFeeding pigs raw garbage
oOthers probably, so basically “all of the above”


Know about the different types of infections that herpes can produce

•Bovine Herpesvirus
oType 1: infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), infectious balanopositis, pustular vulvo-vaginitis
oType 2: mammillitis
oType 3: malignant catarrhal fever
oPseudorabies virus: Aujeszky’s Disease (respiratory, fetal death, abortions, mummies…)
•Equine herpesvirus
oType 1: rhinopneumonitis, respiratory & reproductive
oType 2: pharyngitis of young horses
oType 3: coitial exanthema
oType 4: rhinopneumonitis, respiratory & reproductive
•Canine herpesvirus: fatal hemorrhagic disease in pups
oFeline viral rhinotracheitis (Feline herpesvirus 1): URT disease
oFeline urolithiasis virus (feline herpesvirus 2): experimental disease, urolithiasis, resulting in uremia
oInfectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILT): URT disease
oMarek’s disease virus: oncogenic, neural, ocular, visceral lymphomatosis
oDuck plague virus: enteric, respiratory, CNS
oHerpesvirus infection of pigeons: coryza, laryngeal and pharyngeal ulcers
•Humans, primates
oHerpes simplex virus type 1: oral blisters
oHerpes simplex virus type 2: genital blisters
oHerpes zoster: chicken pox, shingles
oEpstein barr virus: mononucleosis, chronic fatigue syndrome
oHerpes simiae “B” virus: old world monkeys, epithelial blisters, fatal encephalitis in humans
oChannel catfish virus: mortality in young fish


How do you characterize the morphology of a viral particle (what kind of microscope do you use)

“Which of the following are used to characterize morphology of viral particle?”
Transmission electron microscope


Know what constitutes a positive serological titer

A 4-fold rise in titer over 2-3 weeks


Know different between direct or indirect test (what sort of results do you get back from them); Work poorly for latent viruses in hosts

•ELISA and IFA (Indirect fluorescent Antibody) are both indirect and direct tests
•Neutralization titer and Hemagglutination Inhibition are indirect tests
•Others (Pay attention to the bold above, this is just in case)
oDirect: PCR, Reverse transcriptase PCR, Direct Fluorescent antibody test, Radioimmunoassay, Electron microscopy
oIndirect (serological test requires interpretation): Indirect immunofluorescence, AGID-Agar gel immunodiffusion, hemagglutination


What is a significant titer and how to interpret it

A 4 fold rise in titer over a period of 2-3 weeks


Know which tissues do not develop any pathology by canine parvo

Liver, Lung and kidney


Know which tissues do develop pathology from canine parvo

Everything EXCEPT kidneys lungs and liver (heart, lymphoid tissue, BM, intest crypts)


Know why parvo hit S1 and S2 phase of cell life cycle

They do not carry their own DR-DD replication enzyme and rely on cells in S1 phase


Know where DNA and RNA virus replicate (in general)

•DNA nucleus
•RNA cytoplasm


Know about the papovaviridaes and oncogenesis

•Papovaviridae: contains 2 genera (polyomavirus & papillomavirus) which are both oncogenic!


Which virus makes apoptin protein and what it does

The Gyrovirus --> chicken anemia virus protein Apoptin has been shown to induce apoptosis in a large number of transformed and tumor cell lines, but not in primary cells.


Know which viruses produce hemorrhagic disease

•African Swine Fever
•Classical Swine Fever
•Rabbit calicivirus
•San Miguel Sea lion calicivirus
•Vesicular Exanthema of swine
•Chicken anemia virus
•Canine herpesvirus (fatal hemorrhagic disease in puppies)
•NOT pseudorabies


List of all oncogenic viruses

•Marek’s disease (herpesvirus)
•Epstein Barr Virus (herpesvirus)
•Simian virus 40 (polyomavirus)
•Yaba monkey tumor poxvirus
•Many retroviruses (ASLV, ALV, REV, Jaagsiekte, BLV, FeLV)
•Some mice adenoviruses


Know which viruses produce fetal mummies

Exam Qs: know that porcine parvovirus and Aujeszky’s disease can cause fetal mummies! (True)

•Porcine parvovirus (PPV)- (not explicitly stated in notes but he said in class and was a previous Q)
•Porcine pseudorabies virus (Aujeszky’s disease)
•BVDV (depending on time of infection)
•Classic Swine Fever (if infection occurs early in pregnancy)
•Teschovirus in swine (Teschen/Talfan disease - porcine polioencephalomyelitis)


Know what pseudorabies does in various animals (including pigs)

•Aujeszky’s Disease - swine, respiratory, fetal death, abortions, mummies, high mortality in young. Highly fatal pruritis, paralysis in dogs, cats, ruminants, raccoons, rabbits, birds, et. al., but not horses or humans (not horses and humans is the important part)


Know members of the family paramyxoviridae (know where they go)

•Horses in Australia, Can be transferred to humans through fruit bats
•Swine in Malaysia, Fruit bats are the reservoir
•Enzootic worldwide with a large range of hosts (Canidae family, Procyonidae family, Mustelidae family, large cats, lions, leopards, tigers, Phocine and dolphin)


Know about rinderpest (one of the only 2 viruses to be completely eradicated)

It is eradicated GLOBALLY → it was TRUE


Know which viruses produce cerebellar hypoplasia

BVDV, Panleukopenia


Know which viruses have primary replication in pharyngeal tonsils

Parvovirus, Classic swine fever (Flavivirus)


Also have a good understanding of the table of DNA & RNA viruses from the first lecture- how polymerase is carried/coded for by the virus/host, and how that will determine whether the virus can produce infection. (see table footnote)

Several T/F questions about this


Know about the effect that host autolysis has on viruses

Autolytic changes are highly detrimental to viruses (collect specimens immediately after death for best chance of recovery)


Big effect of virus on life forms on the planet (what are they really doing à not causing disease- see Scientific American article “Are Viruses Alive”)

o Viruses are fundamentally important players in evolution. The constant replication and mutation of viruses form new genes and plays a big role in genomic change.


Know where the carbohydrates added to proteins in a virus come from (how are viral glycoproteins produced)

Host cell golgi apparatus (? double check please)


Have a list of all reportable diseases

oBovine HV-III (Malignant Catarrhal Fever- african form)
oPseudorabies virus (Aujeszky's disease)
oILT infectious laryngotracheitis virus
oMarek’s disease virus
oHerpes Simplex virus type II
oHerpes simiae, “B” virus
oAfrican swine fever virus
oClassical Swine fever virus (hog cholera)
oALL vesicular diseases- because clinically indistinguishable from FMD
oRabbit calicivirus disease
oJapanese encephalitis virus
oHendra, Nipah
oNewcastle disease
oSheep pox, goat pox
oBSE, CWD, Scrapie


Have a list of all foreign animal diseases

oAfrican horse sickness
oAfrican swine fever
oAvian influenza
oClassical swine fever
oFoot and mouth disease
oJapanese encephalitis
oMalignant catarrhal fever
oSwine vesicular disease
oVenezuelan equine encephalitis
oVesicular exanthema of swine
oVesicular stomatitis
oBovine Ephemeral Fever
oHemorrhagic septicemia virus


All those that have vaccines available

Know that B simiae, African Swine fever, Lymphocystis, and Ranaviruses do NOT have vaccines


Know about the latency mechanisms of herpes virus (there are 3)

o (“all of the above” question)
o1. Episome formation (small circular viral DNA not inserted into host genome)
o2. Insertion into host chromosome
o3. (?) Latency associated transcript (LAT)


Know reservoir of Hendra and nipah

oFlying foxes (fruit bats)
 Carry the virus
 Are not affected


Know all the animals reported to be infected with canine distemper (there are lots of them)

oEnzootic worldwide.
oMost terrestrial carnivores are susceptible
-All members of the Canidae family (dogs, dingos, foxes, etc.)
-All members of the Mustelidae family (ferret, mink, weasel, etc.)
-All members of the Procyonidae family (raccoon, coati, kinkajou, etc.)
-Large cats: lions, leopards, tigers
-Seals and dolphins