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Flashcards in Drug Eruptions Deck (21)
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1

Are immunologically mediated reactions dose dependent?

No

2

What skin conditions are caused by type 1 hypersensitivity reactions?

urticaria

3

What skin conditions are caused by type 2 hypersensitivity reactions?

pemphigoid and pemphigus

4

How do drug eruptions most commonly present?

exanthematous (rash is a prominent manifestation) is the most common type of drug hypersensitivty reaction. (also known as morbiliform or maculopapular)

5

How else can drug eruptions present?

urticarial in 5-10%
papulosquamous (both papules and scales)
pustular
bullous
pigmentation
itch/pain
photosensitivity

6

When should you consider a drug eruption?

in any patient who is taking medication and develops a symmetric skin eruption of sudden appearance

7

What are the risk factors for the development of drug eruptions?

age- young adults more common than infants or elderly
female gender
concomitant disease- viral infetions or cystic fibrosis
immune status- previous reactions
route

8

What types of drugs are likely to cause eruptions?

B-lactam compounds; NSAIDs
high molecular weight
hapten forming drugs

9

What is a hapten?

Haptens are small molecules that elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself.

10

What type of hypersensitivity is involved in exanthematous drug eruptions?

Type 4 (T-cell mediated delayed type)

11

What is the onset of an exanthematous drug eruption after first taking the drug?

4-21 days

12

What would indicate that the exanthematous drug eruption is potentially severe?

involvement of mucous membrane and face
facial oedema and erythema
widespread confluent erythema
fever
blisters, purpura, necrosis
lymphadenopathy, arthralgia
SOB and wheezing

13

What could indicate that the mucous membranes have been involved in the exanthematous drug eruption?

mouth ulcers- dysphagia
difficulty passing urine

14

What are the two ways that an urticarial drug eruption can take place?

Usually- IgE mediated after rechallenge with drug
But- direct release of inflam mediators from mast cells on first exposure--NSAIDs and aspirin

15

What are the 2 types of pustular drug eruption?

acne
acute generalied exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)

16

What drugs can induce bullous pemphigoid?

ACEIs, penicillin and furosemide

17

What is the characteristic of a fixed drug eruption?

Recurs on the same sites on re-exposure to the drug

18

What is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction?

They combine cutaneous and systemic symptoms

19

Give 4 examples of severe cutaneous adverse reactions

Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Toxic epidermal necrolysis
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)
Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)

20

Phototoxic cutaneous drug reactions are immunologically mediated. T/F

False

21

How can phototoxicity present?

exaggerated sunburn
immediate prickling with delayed erythema and pigmentation
exposed telangiectasia
delayed 3-5days erthema and pigmentation
increased skin fragility