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Flashcards in Drug interventions Deck (31):
1

Whose responsibility is it to make sure drugs are safe

Health Canada

2

HC requires drug manufacturers to follow strict procedures in testing drugs they wish to market. The over all process takes about _____ and involves several steps which include:
1. ____ &_____research
2. __________development
3. __________ __________. _____1,2 & 3
4. _____________________ Submission.

1. Chemical & Biological research
2. Pre-clinical development
3. Clinical Trial. Phases 1,2 & 3
4. New Drug Submission.

3

Currently there are____ approved for use in the treatment of AD in Canada.

4

4

Drugs used to treat mild to moderate AD symptoms include:
These are ______ __________ and all have _________ ___________.

Mild-Moderate: Aricept, Reminyl, Exelon

These are CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS and all have SIMILAR EFFECTS_.

5

Another name for Reminyl

galantamine

6

Another name for Exelon

rivastigmine

7

Another name for Aricept

donepizil

8

Another name for Ebixa

memantine hydrochloride

9

These drugs can help improve some ______ _______ to carry out activities for up to ______ or so.

These drugs can help improve some patient's abilities to carry out activities for up to a year or so.

10

Drugs for moderate to severe AD include:

Moderate-Severe: Ebixa

11

The effects of drugs to improve mild to moderate symptoms of AD include (6)...

improved:
attention,
memory,
alertness,
motivation,
mood and
ability to carry out ADL

12

ADL stands for...

activities of daily living

13

Reminyl, ______ & Aricept work by reducing the destruction of_____________ and thereby ____________ it's activity

Reminyl, EXELON & Aricept work by reducing the destruction of ACETYLCHOLINE and thereby INCREASING it's activity

14

___________ ___________ prevent the enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine.

CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS

15

Side effects of ______,_______and Exelon include: (5)

REMINYL, EXELON, ARICEPT
Nausea,
loss of appetite,
tiredness, diarrhea,
muscle cramps,
sleep disturbance

16

How effective are cholinesterase inhibitors? What else 'might' happen?

-50-60% show a slight improvement or stabilization of their condition over 6 months.
-might influence neuronal function, but also survival

17

First drug approved by health canada

Ebixa

18

How does Ebixa 'appear' to work..

protects neurons against excess amounts

19

Who compared hippocampal volume loss in individuals with AD using______.

Hashimoto, Aricept

20

What kind of design did Hashimoto use?
Describe the participants...

Quasi Experimental.
-prospective cohort was compared with an historical control group.

21

Key Finding of Hashimoto..

annual rate of hippocampal volume loss among the treated patients was significantly smaller than that among the control s.

22

What was the conclusion of the Hashimoto study?

Aricept slows the progression of hippocampal atrophy suggesting a neuroprotective effect.

23

Ebixa protects neurons against excess amounts of Glutamate. Glutamate is a _______________ released in large amounts by cells ________ by______.

Glutamate is a NEUROTRANSMITTER released in large amounts by cells DAMAGED by AD..

24

What other symptoms are medical treatments also prescribed for?

-depression
-psychosis
-anxiety
-behavioural issues

25

Other areas of research

-anti-oxidants
-vaccines that prevent plaque formation
-anti inflammatory drugs
-cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins
-estrogen
-gingko biloba

26

How do vaccines work?

-prevent formation beta-amyloid plaques

27

Are Statins effective in people who already have AD?
Who was it effective for?
What did larger scale studies show about the supposed effect?

-NO
-people who had taken it for 5-7 years.
-Larger studies did not replicate these effects

28

-What are ARB's usually used for?
-People who take ARB's are...
-what else WAS exciting

-lower blood pressure
...at lower risk of developing dementia.
-people who already had dementia appeared to have progression of symptoms stalled.

29

What did estrogen research show

not effective and later found to cause breast cancer. Very dangerous for post menopausal women

30

Describe the video on Ginko Biloba research

Gingko twice a day - did not impact cognitive abilities at all.
Researcher however did not verify that participants actually took the Gingko

31

Describe the case study on Gingko
-How many participants?Groups?
-What kind of diagnosis did they have?
-how often did they have GB?
-for how long?
-results?

-3069 (treatment and placebo)
-normal to Mild Cog Imp
-2 times a day
-2000-2008
-dementia rating actually slightly higher in treatment group