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Neuro Muscular Psych Block 1 > Drugs of Abuse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs of Abuse Deck (12)
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1

Drugs of Abuse Duration of Symptoms
Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana, Inhalants, Stimulants, Depressants, Hallucinogens, Narcotics, PCP

Alcohol: 1 hour per serving
Tobacco: 20 minutes
Marijuana: 2-4 hours
Inhalants: 5 minutes - 8 hours
Stimulants: 5 minutes - 12 hours
Depressants: 1-16 hours
Hallucinogens: 5 minutes - 12 hours
Narcotics: 4-24 hours
PCP: 4-6 hours

2

Most Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs
Painkillers (3) Depressants (3) Stimulants (2)

Painkillers: Fentanyl, Hydrocodone, Oxycodone

Depressants: Alprazolam, Zolpidem, Zaleplon

Stimulants: Adderal, Methylphenidate

3

Stimulant Drug Symptoms
Overdose (7) and Withdrawal (5)

Agitation
HTN
Tachycardia
Delusions
Hallucinations
Hyperthermia
Seizures

Apathy
Irritability
Sleep
Disorientation
Depression

4

Depressant Drug Symptoms
Overdose (1) and Withdrawal (6)

Drunken behavior

Anxiety
Insomnia
Delirium
Tremors
Seizures
Death

5

Opioid Drug Symptoms
Overdose (4) and Withdrawal (6)

Constricted pupils
Drowsy
Respiratory Depression
Death

Nausea
Chills
Cramps
Lacrimation
Hyperpnea
Tremor

6

Nicotine Addiction Pharmacotherapy
Drug with Mechanism of Action

Varenicline

Nicotinic receptor partial agonist

7

Caffeine Uses (5)

Mental Alertness
Migraines
Asthma
ADHD
Improving memory

8

Alcohol
Biotransformation (3) Metabolism Capability and Pharmacokinetics (3)

Alcohol dehydrogenase turns ethanol into acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase makes acetate
Thiokinase makes Acetyl CoA

7-10 grams of alcohol per hour (~1 drink)

Zero Order Kinetics:
Amount of ADH is rate limiting factor
Rate remains constant independent of concentration or amount of alcohol

9

Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome
Complications (5) and Treatments (4)

Seizures
Delirium
Arrhythmias
Electrolyte Imbalances
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

Diazepam
Lorazepam
Oxazepam
Thiamine (and Glucose)

10

Alcohol Abuse Pharmacotherapy
Drugs (3) with Mechanisms of Action

Naltrexone: long acting opioid mu antagonist

Acamprosate: NMDA antagonist and GABAa agonist

Disulfiram: irreversible aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor

11

Disulfiram Side Effects (6) and Cause

Caused by aldehyde buildup from even small amounts of alcohol ingestion

Flushing
Headache
Vomiting
Sweating
Hypotension
Confusion

12

Methanol or Ethylene Glycol Poisoning
Toxic Metabolites (2) and Treatments (2)

Formaldehyde (methanol)
Gyloxylic acid (ethylene glycol)

Ethanol
Fomepizole