Sedative and Hypnotic Drugs Flashcards Preview

Neuro Muscular Psych Block 1 > Sedative and Hypnotic Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sedative and Hypnotic Drugs Deck (21)
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1

Alprazolam
Pharmacokinetics (2), Indications (2) and Contraindications (3)

Intermediate half life (12-15 hours)
Fast onset

Anxiety
Panic Disorder

Acute angle glaucoma
Ketoconazole use
Itraconazole use

2

Midazolam
Pharmacokinetics (1) Indication, Black Box Warning

Short half life

Given IV or IM for pre-op sedation or anxiolysis

Respiratory depression or arrest especially in noncritical are settings

3

Diazepam
Pharmacokinetics (2) Metabolite, Indications (2) Contraindications (6)

Long half life (100 hours)
Very fast onset

N-desmethyldiazepam (active)

Anxiety
Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms

< 6 years old
Myasthenia gravis
Respiratory insufficiency
Cirrhosis/Liver Insufficiency
Sleep apnea
Acute angle glaucoma

4

Oxazapam
Pharmacokinetics (2) and Indications (3)

Intermediate half life
Slow onset

Anxiety
Anxiety with depression
Acute alcohol withdrawal

5

Triazolam
Pharmacokinetics (2), Indication, Black Box Warning

Short half life
Intermediate onset

Short term relief of insomnia (7-10 days)

Use with opioids causes respiratory depression, coma and death

6

Chlordiazepoxide
Pharmacokinetics (2) Indications (3) and Black Box Warning

Long half life
Intermediate onset

Anxiety
Alcohol withdrawal
Pre-Op anxiety

Use with opioids causes respiratory depression, coma and death

7

Flurazepam
Pharmacokinetics (2) and Indication

Long half life
Fast onset

Short term relief of insomnia

8

Lorazepam
Pharmacokinetics (2) and Indications (3)

Intermediate half life
Intermediate onset

Seizures
Epilepsy
Pre-Op

9

Benzodiazepine Pharmacokinetics
Short Acting Drugs (5) and Long Acting Drugs (3)

Midazolam
Oxazepam
Alprazolam
Temazepam
Triazolam

Diazepam
Lorazepam
Clonazepam

10

Flumazenil
Mechanism of Action, Indications (2) and Black Box Warning

Competitive antagonist of Benzodiazepine receptors

Reverse sedation via anesthesia
Treat benzodiazepine overdose

Seizures possible especially with long term sedation or patient overdose

11

Barbiturates ("tal" drugs)
Indications (5)

Extreme insomnia
Refractory seizures
Tension headaches
Counteract stimulant drugs
Anesthesia

12

Thiopental
Administration, Pharmacokinetics, Indications (4) Side Effects (3)

IV only

Ultra short acting

Brief surgical procedures
Balanced anesthesia
Convulsions
Increased ICP

Respiratory depression
Myocardial depression
Arrhythmias

13

Secobarbital
Pharmacokinetics, Indications (2), Contraindications (3)

Short acting

Short term insomnia relief
Pre anesthetic

Porphyria
Liver failure
Obstructive lung disease

14

Phenobarbital
Pharmacokinetics, Indications (2) Contraindication, Side Effects (2)

Long acting

Sedation/Hypnosis
Seizures

Porhpyria

Exacerbates depression and suicidality
Strongly induces CYP450**

15

Buspirone
Indication, Timeline, Pertinent Negatives (5), Metabolism

Anxiety

Takes over a week for response

Does not cause:
Sedation, hypnosis, muscle relaxation, euphoria, anticonvulsive effects

CYP3A4 metabolized

16

Zaleplon
Mechanism of Action, Indication

acts on GABA-BZ receptor complex (GABAa)

Short term insomnia treatment

17

Zolpidem
Pharmacokinetics, Indication, Interactions (2), Side Effects (2)

Biphasic release formula

Relief of insomnia (up to 35 days)

CNS depressants
Alcohol has additive effect on psychomotor impairment

Worsens depression and suicidality

18

Ramelteon
Mechanism of Action, Indication, Metabolism

Full agonist of MT1/MT2 receptors

Treatment of insomnia with difficulty with sleep onset

CYP1A2 metabolized

19

Eszopiclone
Indication, Side Effects (8) Contraindications (5)

Insomnia

Unpleasant taste
Headaches
Respiratory infections
Dizzy
Dry mouth
Rash
Anxiety
Hallucinations

Use with alcohol
Liver failure
Impaired respiratory function
Impaired drug metabolism
Clotting conditions

20

Meprobamate
Mechanism of Action and Use

Slows brain for anxiety treatment

21

Chloral Hydrate Uses (2)

Sedative for sleep
Alcohol withdrawal