Dyslipidemia Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular > Dyslipidemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dyslipidemia Deck (10):
1

How does our body solve the insoluble fat issue? (ie, we want fats to be soluble, but because they're hydrophobic they float instead of dissolving, how do we solve this?)

- the body wraps the fat in a lipophilic membrane
- inside of the membrane is lipophilic, outside is hydrophilic

2

What makes up a lipid?

- the core: triglycerides and cholesteryl esterase
- the outside: phospholipids and cholesterol

3

Put the following in size order: LDL, HDL, chylomicron, VLDL, IDL

- HDL

4

Apolipoprotein

- proteins with specific "instructions" that are added to the lipophilic membrane

5

What does the liver secrete in response to ingested fats? What role do these products have?

- liver secretes bile acids and cholesterol
- these target the ingested lipids and direct them towards the capillaries where their fatty acids can be absorbed
- the remnant of the fat is then directed towards the liver to be broken down

6

HDL

- high-density lipoprotein
- "mops up" free floating cholesterol from macrophages and peripheral cells
- has apoprotein ApoA-1 or ApoA-2

7

Why aren't chylomicrons involved in atherosclerosis?

- because they are FAR too large

8

LDLR

- receptors on the liver that bind to LDL molecules, resulting in their uptake into the liver

9

Statins

- used to manage LDL cholesterol levels
- mechanism: inhibits HMG-CoA reductase (enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis), fooling the body into thinking there is a lack of cholesterol and resulting in the increased uptake of the body's LDL
- effects: decreased cholesterol synthesis, increased LDLR synthesis = decreased LDL levels

10

Ezetimibe

- a cholesterol absorption inhibitor
- mechanism: binds to NPC1L1, preventing cholesterol uptake by the liver, resulting in an increase in LDLR syntehsis (thus lowering the circulating LDL levels)