Vasculitis Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular > Vasculitis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vasculitis Deck (41):
1

What is vasculitis? Does is mainly affect arteries or veins?

- inflammation of the blood vessel wall
- mainly affects arteries

2

What are the three broad categories of vasculitis?

- large, medium, and small vessel vasculitis
- (there is considerable overlap)

3

What are the two main types of large vessel vasculitis?

- temporal (giant cell) arteritis
- Takayasu arteritis

4

What are the three main types of medium vessel vasculitis?

- polyarteritis nordosa
- Kawasaki disease
- Buerger's disease

5

What are the four main types of small vessel vasculitis?

- Wegener granulomatosis
- microscopic polyangiitis
- Churg-Strauss syndrome
- HSP (Henoch-Schonlein purpura)

6

Temporal (Giant Cell) Arteritis is most common in what demographic? What about Takayasu Arteritis?

- giant cell: female patients > 50
- Takayasu: patients

7

What type of vasculitis is Temporal (Giant Cell) Arteritis? Which vessels does it commonly affect?

- large vessel vasculitis
- commonly affects the carotid artery

8

Why do patients with Temporal (Giant Cell) Arteritis commonly present with headaches?

- because the temporal artery branches from the carotid, and the inflammed artery causes pressure in the head

9

What is a major potential risk of Temporal (Giant Cell) Arteritis?

- blindness due to the proximity of the ophthalmic artery to the carotid

10

Pathophysiology of Temporal (Giant Cell) Arteritis; What do we see on histology?

- giant cells attack and fragment the internal elastic lamina of the blood vessel wall
- on histology, we would see a huge separation between the intima and media as a result

11

What type of vasculitis is Takayasu Arteritis? Which vessels does it commonly affect?

- large vessel vasculitis
- commonly affects the aortic arch at its branch points

12

Pathophysiology of Takayasu Arteritis

- essentially the same as temporal arteritis
- giant cells attack and fragment the internal elastic lamina of the blood vessel wall

13

Medium vessel vasculitis involves which vessels?

- muscular arteries that supply organs

14

Polyarteritis Nordosa

- a necrotizing (fibrinoid necrosis) arteritis that is systemic (affects most organs)
- a medium vessel vasculitis

15

Polyarteritis Nordosa is most common in which demographic?

- young adults

16

What type of inflammation is involved in Temporal Arteritis and Takayasu Arteritis?

- granulomatous inflammation (hence the giant cells)

17

What type of necrosis is involved in Polyarteritis Nordosa?

- fibrinoid necrosis

18

Although it is systemic, which organs are NOT affected by Polyarteritis Nordosa?

- the lungs

19

What do we see on histology of Polyarteritis Nordosa?

- a 'string-of-pearls' appearance

20

What type of vasculitis is Kawasaki Disease? Which vessels does it usually affect?

- medium vessel vasculitis
- affects the coronary artery

21

Kawasaki Disease is most common in which demographic?

- asian children

22

Kawasaki disease commonly affects the coronary artery, greatly increasing the risk of ___________, despite the patient's young age. Therefore, we commonly give these patients prophylactic ________.

- increased of MI
- give them aspirin!

23

What type of vasculitis is Buerger's Disease? Which vessels does it affect?

- a necrotizing medium vessel vasculitis
- affects the arteries in the digits

24

Buerger's Disease is only seen in which demographic?

- smokers!
- it is totally associated with smoking

25

Patients with Buerger's Disease commonly present with what symptoms?

- ulceration and gangrene of their fingers and toes
- if untreated, autoamputation can occur

26

Small vessel vasculitis affects which vessels?

- arterioles, capillaries, and venules

27

What type of vasculitis is Wegener Granulomatosis?

- a necrotizing small vessel vasculitis

28

What is the classic triad of affected organs in Wegener Granulomatosis?

- the nasopharynx, lungs, and kidneys

29

Wegener Granulomatosis is most common in which demographic?

- middle aged males

30

Small vessel vasculitis is commonly ANCA related. Is Wegener Granulomatosis ANCA related? If so, what type?

- (anti-neutophril cytoplasmic antibodies)
- Wegener granulomatosis is c-ANCA related

31

What type of vasculitis is Microscopic Polyangiitis?

- a necrotizing small vessel vasculitis

32

Which organs are commonly affected in Microscopic Polyangiitis?

- multiple organs, but especially the skin, lungs, and kidney

33

Microscopic Polyangiitis and Wegener Granulomatosis are both types of necrotizing small vessel vasculitis that affect the kidneys and lungs - how can we tell them apart?

- microscopic polyangiitis does NOT affect the nasopharynx, and is p-ANCA related
- Wegener granulomatosis DOES affect the nasopharynx, and is c-ANCA related

34

Small vessel vasculitis is commonly ANCA related. Is Microscopic Polyangiitis ANCA related? If so, what type?

- (anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies)
- microscopic polyangiitis is p-ANCA related

35

Churg-Strauss Syndrome is a type of which vasculitis? Which organs are commonly affected?

- a rare necrotizing small vessel vasculitis with eosinophils
- several organs affected, but especially the lungs and heart

36

Small vessel vasculitis is commonly ANCA related. Is Churg-Strauss Syndrome ANCA related? If so, what type?

- (anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies)
- Churg-Strauss syndrome is p-ANCA related

37

Miscroscopic Polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss Syndrome are both types of necrotizing small vessel vasculitis that are p-ANCA related - how can we tell them apart?

- eosinophils are only present in Churg-Strauss
- Churg-Strauss is also associated with asthma, where as microscopic polyangiitis is not

38

HSP

Henoch-Schonlein purpura (a small vessel vasculitis)

39

HSP is the MOST common vasculitis in which demographic?

- (Henoch-Schonlein purpura)
- most common vasculitis in kids

40

Patients with HSP commonly present with what symptoms?

- (Henoch-Schonlein purpura)
- palpable purpura on buttocks and legs

41

HSP is due to IgA immune complex deposition in the blood vessel wall, explaining why it is usually seen following a ______________.

- (Henoch-Schonlein purpura)
- usually follows an upper respiratory tract infection