Flashcards in Shock Deck (12):
- a state of reduced end-organ perfusion/oxygenation
Shock occurs at what vascular level?
- the capillary level
What homeostatic mechanisms kick in to try and compensate in shock?
- heart contractions increase in both force and frequency
- blood flow to non-vital organs gets reduced
- vasoconstriction to maintain perfusion of vital organs
What is the mortality rate from shock?
- 35 - 70%
4 Major Types of Shock
- hypovalemic, cardiogenic, obstructive, and distributive
In shock, why do patients commonly have acidic blood?
- because not enough oxygen is being supplied to the tissues for normal respiration, so glycolysis (anaerobic respiration) kicks in
- lactic acid builds up as a result = lactic acidosis
Mechanism behind Hypovalemic Shock
- large loss of blood/fluid results in a decreased cardiac preload, leading to decreased and insufficient cardiac output
- (trauma, ectopic pregnancy, severe dehydration)
Mechanism behind Cardiogenic Shock
- dysfunction of the heart pump leads to decreased cardiac output
- (MI, heart failure, arrhythmia, etc.)
Mechanism behind Obstructive Shock
- obstruction to cardiac flow or filling results in decreased cardiac output
- (PE, pulmonary HTN, cardiac tamponade, pneumothorax)
Mechanism behind Distributive Shock
- systemic vasodilation, leads to massive drop in TPR, resulting in decreased preload
- (septic shock)
Distributive Shock is HIGH/LOW output failure, while the other three types are HIGH/LOW output failure. (Include whether TPR, CO, and venous return are increased or decreased.)
- distributive: high output failure (TPR decreases, CO increases, venous return increases)
- other three: low output failure (TPR increases, CO decreases, venous return decreases)