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Flashcards in Shock Deck (12):
1

Shock

- a state of reduced end-organ perfusion/oxygenation

2

Shock occurs at what vascular level?

- the capillary level

3

What homeostatic mechanisms kick in to try and compensate in shock?

- heart contractions increase in both force and frequency
- blood flow to non-vital organs gets reduced
- vasoconstriction to maintain perfusion of vital organs

4

What is the mortality rate from shock?

- 35 - 70%

5

4 Major Types of Shock

- hypovalemic, cardiogenic, obstructive, and distributive

6

In shock, why do patients commonly have acidic blood?

- because not enough oxygen is being supplied to the tissues for normal respiration, so glycolysis (anaerobic respiration) kicks in
- lactic acid builds up as a result = lactic acidosis

7

Mechanism behind Hypovalemic Shock

- large loss of blood/fluid results in a decreased cardiac preload, leading to decreased and insufficient cardiac output
- (trauma, ectopic pregnancy, severe dehydration)

8

Mechanism behind Cardiogenic Shock

- dysfunction of the heart pump leads to decreased cardiac output
- (MI, heart failure, arrhythmia, etc.)

9

Mechanism behind Obstructive Shock

- obstruction to cardiac flow or filling results in decreased cardiac output
- (PE, pulmonary HTN, cardiac tamponade, pneumothorax)

10

Mechanism behind Distributive Shock

- systemic vasodilation, leads to massive drop in TPR, resulting in decreased preload
- (septic shock)

11

Distributive Shock is HIGH/LOW output failure, while the other three types are HIGH/LOW output failure. (Include whether TPR, CO, and venous return are increased or decreased.)

- distributive: high output failure (TPR decreases, CO increases, venous return increases)
- other three: low output failure (TPR increases, CO decreases, venous return decreases)

12

What are the three classic symptoms of shock?

- pallor, sweating, rapid & weak pulse