Embryology of the Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Embryology of the Heart Deck (17):

When does the development of the heart take place?

- between weeks 3 and 7 after fertilization


The 1st fold of the heart tube is called the _______, and the 2nd fold is called the _______.

- 1st fold: C-bend
- 2nd fold: S-bend


Arterial blood outflow occurs at the ______ of the heart tube, while venous return inflow occurs at the _______.

- arterial outflow occurs at top
- venous inflow occurs at bottom


What are the three fetal shunts present in the fetal heart?

- ductus venosus (bypasses the liver; blood enters directly into the IVC)
- foramen ovale (hole in atrial septum)
- ductus arteriosus (bypasses the lungs)


T or F: in fetal circulation, the pressure of the right side of the heart is usually greater than that of the left side.

- false!
- the two pressures are relatively equal


What occurs when the spiral septum fails to spiral during development?

- transposition of the great vessels


What occurs when the spiral septum spirals off-center during development?

- tetralogy of Fallot


What are the five embryologic structures of the heart (going from the top of the heart tube to the bottom)?

- truncus arteriosus, bulbus cordis, primitive ventricle, primitive atria, and sinus venosus


What does the truncus arteriosus become?

- the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk


What does the bulbus cordis become?

- the SMOOTH part of the ventricles


What does the primitive ventricle become? The primitive atria?

- they become the TRABECULATED part of the ventricles and atria, respectively


What does the sinus venosus become?

- the left horn becomes the coronary sinus


What do the endocardial cushions of the outflow tract develop into?

- the aortic and pulmonary valves


What do the fused endocardial cushions of the atrio-ventricle canal develop into?

- the AV valves


Which cells are responsible for the spiraling of the truncus arteriosus?

- neural crest cells


How many embryonic aortic arches form the bifurication of the truncus arteriosus? Separately, which arch forms the aorta? The pulmonary trunk?

- 2 arches form the bifurication
- arch #4 forms the aorta
- arch #6 forms the pulmonary trunk


How many septa are involved in the formation of the 4 chambers?

- 3
- one between the atria, one between the ventricles, and one within the truncus arteriosus