EAC Obstetrics and Neonatal Resuscitation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EAC Obstetrics and Neonatal Resuscitation Deck (32):

anatomical changes during pregnancy:
respiratory system

>tidal volume 20% at 12wks and 40% by 40wks

O2 demand increases by 15% in the well pt

Rib cage becomes splayed outwards to accommodate the growing uterus


anatomical changes during pregnancy:
Cardiovascular System

Blood volume inc 50% by 3rd trimester

Relative anaemia and haemodilution

>cardiac output by 40% mid pregnancy.

Can cause postural hypotension and fainting due to reduced vascular resistance

Systolic BP falls initially but returns near normal at term

Supine hypotension due to the uterus compressing the vena cava

In the event of blood loss, the compensatory mechanism is restriction of blood flow to the uterus (and foetus)


anatomical changes during pregnancy:
Gastrointestinal Tract

Gastric tone and emptying rates reduced

Secretion of gastric acid is increased in the 3rd trimester

Cardiac sphincter tone is lax due to hormonal action

Gravid uterus compresses the stomach


anatomical changes during pregnancy:
Genital Tract

Increase in blood supply to the uterus

high muscle tone increases risk of uterine rupture in trauma


the 3 trimesters of Pregnancy

Pregnancy = first day of LMP up to 42wks

1st trimester - 1 - 12wks

2nd trimester = 13 - 23+6wks

3rd trimester = 24+wks


First stage of Labour

Dilation of the cervix 0-10cm

Longest stage of labour

Show (blood stained mucus discharge)

Contractions become more frequent

Membranes may rupture (SROM)/breaking of waters - but not always - colour of liquor is important

Often at around 8cm dilation, women becomes very vocal - soon before onset of 2nd stage, then will become very focused


Second stage of Labour

Spontaneous rupture of membranes (if not already)

Cervix dilated fully

Changes in contractions (transition - becomes expulsive)

Baby's head descends into the birth canal creating an urge to push

Baby's head becomes visible at the introitus (entrance that goes into a canal or hollow organ) - crowning

Completed with delivery of the baby's body


Third stage of Labour

The expulsion of the placenta and membranes 15-20mins after delivery

Cord lengthens indicating placenta and membranes have separated from the uterus and entered the birth canal.

Pains return, mother may also experience the urge to bear down as the placenta is delivered

Gush of blood can be expected not usually exceeding 200-300ml

Any loss of blood >500ml is considered post partum haemorrhage PPH


management of:
Normal Labour

Gain consent
If unable to move to hospital (contractions


management of:

Gently wipe any mucous away from baby's nose and mouth
Dry thoroughly, new-born assessment can be done concurrently APGAR, dispose of towel
Wrap in clean dry towel
Place hat from maternity pack on baby
If baby's condition is satisfactory hand to mother



refer to JRCALC


Premature Delivery

pre-term delivery =


management of:
Premature delivery


Delayed Delivery of Shoulders (Dystocia)

Impaction of baby's shoulder on the maternal pelvis preventing delivery


signs and symptoms of:
Delayed Delivery of Shoulders (Dystocia)

Difficulty with delivery of the head and face

Head remaining tightly applied to the vulva or retracting (turtle-neck sign)

Failure of restitution of the foetal head

Failure of the shoulders to descend


management of:
Delayed Delivery of Shoulders (Dystocia)

Call for early help

DO NOT pull on the baby's head/put pressure on the fundas/pull the cord

Get mum into MacRoberts position / advise not to push

If unsuccessful within 1-2 contractions use suprapubic pressure then suprapubic rocking

If unsuccessful, utilise all fours, head down position and try to deliver the posterior shoulder

If unsuccessful transfer to obstetric unit with pre-alert

Paramedic to gain IV access and prepare for risk of PPH


Prolapsed Cord

the umbilical cord emerges form the uterus ahead of the baby

each contraction compresses the cord compromising the baby's O2 supply


management of:
Prolapsed Cord

Request midwife and 2nd crew

Get mother on all fours

Minimise handling of cord to prevent spasm

Prepare ambulance

Bring trolley bed as close to Pt as possible

Pt walk to bed and positioned left lateral tilt (hips raised)

If midwife ONS, bladder filling can assist

Transfer with pre-alert to consultant led obstetric unit


signs and symptoms of:

Sever pre-eclampsia is high blood pressure (160/110)

If BP ≥140/90 if any of the following present:
Epigastric or R upper quadrant pain
Visual disturbance
Facial oedema (not a consistent sign)

TIME CRITICAL pre-alert smooth transport to obstetric unit



Convulsions associated with pregnancy.

During pregnancy
During labour
Up to 48 hours after delivery


management of:

Left lateral tilt, once fitting stopped

Maintain the airway

High % O2

Check BM

Paramedic for Diazepam

Correct A and B then pre-alert to consultant led obstetric unit

Lights and Sirens kept to a minimum as these may precipitate fits


Breech and Malpresentations

According to the leading part, this is identified as a cephalic, breech, or shoulder presentation.

A malpresentation is any presentation other than a vertex presentation (with the top of the head first).


Placental Abruption

Premature separation of the placenta. bleeding may be revealed or concealed

can be before or during birth, causes abdominal pain which remains after a contraction has gone



signs and symptoms of:
Placental Abruption

severe or constant Abdo pain


Tense woody abdomen


Dark blood loss

Reduced/no foetal movements


Placenta Previa

Placenta drops partially or wholly covering the cervix


signs and symptoms of:
Placenta Previa

Blood loss may be significant

Often bright red blood

Relaxed uterus/non-tender

May be pain free


Post-Partum Haemorrhage

tear in perineum or bleeding from vagina before placenta is delivered

Bleeding after delivery more then expected (300ml)

Primary PPH: >500ml within 24hours of delivery

Secondary PPH: Abnormal or excessive bleeding from the birth canal between 24hours and 12 weeks post-natally

Trickling blood is normal BUT pulsating/pouring out is not


Ectopic Pregnancy

Foetus develops outside the uterine cavity, most commonly in the fallopian tubes


signs and symptoms of:
Ectopic Pregnancy

Acute lower abdominal pain/tenderness

Slight bleeding/spotting

Signs of shock/tachycardia/hypotension

Unexplained fainting/dizziness

R Shoulder tip pain

Unusual bowel/urinary symptoms

Rectal pain or pain on defecation


management of:
PPH - perineum tear

Apply a pressure dressing


management of:
PPH from vagina

Keep mother still

NOT pulling on cord

Feeling for the top of the uterus and massaging with a circular motion if bleeding continues after delivery of the placenta; massage at umbilicus, should become firm

Transport immediately to nearest obstetric unit

Treating for shock


compression:breath ratio for Neo-Natal resuscitation

placenta still in womb = 3:1

Placenta out of womb = 15:2