Early and middle childhood development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Early and middle childhood development Deck (34):

what are erikson's stages of early psychosocial development?

-basic trust vs mistrust (infancy)
-autonomy vs shame and doubt (1-3 yrs)
-initiative vs guilt (3-5 yrs)


basic trust vs mistrust age and characteristics?

-infants are dependant on caregiver to meet their needs and provide comfort
-when caregiver meets needs, infant develops trust
-otherwise, child develops wariness and a lack of comfort


what is hope in terms of basic trust vs mistrust?

a balance of openness to new experience and wariness that discomfort or danger may arise


autonomy vs shame and doubt age and characteristics?

-1-3 yrs
-children develop a sense of control over their own actions
-if autonomy is not achieved children are shameful and doubt their own capabilities


what is will in terms of autonomy vs shame and doubt?

can act intentionally but within limits


initiative vs guilt age and characteristics?

-3-5 yrs
-children develop imagination for possibilities for themselves
-play becomes purposeful and includes paying the roles of mother, father, teacher or athlete
-with proper encouragement and balance, initiative cooperation are developed


what is theory of mind?

a coherent understanding of mental states including thoughts, beliefs, desires and intentions


what are the different ages and stages in theory of mind?

-2 years = children understand desires and their relationship with actions
-3 years = children able to distinguish between mental and physical worlds
-4 years = children have a firm grasp of the nature of how thoughts and beliefs explain behaviour


what is autism spectrum disorder?

-condition consisting of a set of developmental and behavioural features


what do the core features of autism include impairments in?

-social interactions
-restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviour, interests and activities


what kind of tests do kids with ASD have trouble with?

false belief test reflecting deficits in theory of mind.


what does difficulty with theory of mind appear as?

lack of empathy


survival rates and attachment?

bowlby notices that children who form attachments to an adult are more likely to survive


steps and ages towards attachment?

-preattachment stage (0-6/8 weeks)
-attachment in the making (6-8 weeks to 6-8 months)
-true attachment (6-8 months to 18 months)
-reciprocal relationships (18 months on)


stage 1 of attachment?

-pre-attachment stage
-0 to 6-8 weeks
-recognise mother
-elicit caregiving


stage 2 of attachment?

-attachment in the making
-6-8 weeks to 6-8 months
-more easily consoled by mother


stage 3 of attachment?

-true attachment
-6-8 months to 18 months
-single out mother as secure base


stage 4 of attachment?

-reciprocal relationship
-18 months +
-toddler increasingly acts as a partner in relationship
-anticipates that parent will return after separation


what is strange situation experiment?

-ainsworth introduced children and mothers to a room from which the mother then left. upon her return the nature of the child's reaction was studied
-4 types of reactions were observed


what were the 4 reactions to the strange situation experiment?

-secure attachment = child is comforted, crying stops, child explores again
-avoidant attachment = child ignores or turns away
-resistant attachment = baby is upset and remains upset/difficult to console
-disorganised attachment = child seems confused and is unsure of reaction


what were the percentage of children in the 4 reactions to the strange situation experiment?

-secure (60-65%)
-avoidant (20%)
-resistant (15%)
-disorganised (5-10%)





other factors related to quality of attachment?

-cultural variation
-multiple attachment experiences
-parent's own attachment history
-parent's mental illness


consequences of attachment?

-children with secure attachments are more confident and successful with peers
-securely attached children have fewer conflicts with friendships with peers


internal working model?

-expectations derived from early caregiving experiences concerning the availability of attachment figures and one's interactions with those figures


ages and levels of playing?

-around 1 year child engages in parallel play, playing alongside with minimal interaction
-15-18 months, children do similar activities and smile at each other in simple social play
-about 2 years, children engage in cooperative play. play roles and interact


what do girls do when they play?

tend to support girl peers in enabling


what do boys do when they play?

tend to contradict, threaten and compete with boy peers inactivity known as constricting


parental influence on play and consequences?

-parents help and play along
-parents mediate
-parents play caching role in diffusing aggression and competition
-children whose parents engage in these activities are often more socially skillful


cooperation and children?

-older children are more likely to cooperate
-children who observe peers cooperating are more likely to imitate them
-children are more likely to cooperate when peers are responsive to their attempts


what is prosocial behaviour?

any behaviour that benefits others


what is altruism?

behaviour that does not benefit oneself but does benefit others, such as helping and sharing


when is empathy more likely?

when a child reaches school age


role of parents in the process of attachment?

-parents must be available to form an attachment to
-parents must respond to a babies' behaviour e.g. crying, smiling, gazing
-parents are needed by child to perform reassurance and comfort
-mothers are main caregivers and primary attachment
-fathers spend time in play