Flashcards in Early and middle childhood development Deck (34):
what are erikson's stages of early psychosocial development?
-basic trust vs mistrust (infancy)
-autonomy vs shame and doubt (1-3 yrs)
-initiative vs guilt (3-5 yrs)
basic trust vs mistrust age and characteristics?
-infants are dependant on caregiver to meet their needs and provide comfort
-when caregiver meets needs, infant develops trust
-otherwise, child develops wariness and a lack of comfort
what is hope in terms of basic trust vs mistrust?
a balance of openness to new experience and wariness that discomfort or danger may arise
autonomy vs shame and doubt age and characteristics?
-children develop a sense of control over their own actions
-if autonomy is not achieved children are shameful and doubt their own capabilities
what is will in terms of autonomy vs shame and doubt?
can act intentionally but within limits
initiative vs guilt age and characteristics?
-children develop imagination for possibilities for themselves
-play becomes purposeful and includes paying the roles of mother, father, teacher or athlete
-with proper encouragement and balance, initiative cooperation are developed
what is theory of mind?
a coherent understanding of mental states including thoughts, beliefs, desires and intentions
what are the different ages and stages in theory of mind?
-2 years = children understand desires and their relationship with actions
-3 years = children able to distinguish between mental and physical worlds
-4 years = children have a firm grasp of the nature of how thoughts and beliefs explain behaviour
what is autism spectrum disorder?
-condition consisting of a set of developmental and behavioural features
what do the core features of autism include impairments in?
-restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviour, interests and activities
what kind of tests do kids with ASD have trouble with?
false belief test reflecting deficits in theory of mind.
what does difficulty with theory of mind appear as?
lack of empathy
survival rates and attachment?
bowlby notices that children who form attachments to an adult are more likely to survive
steps and ages towards attachment?
-preattachment stage (0-6/8 weeks)
-attachment in the making (6-8 weeks to 6-8 months)
-true attachment (6-8 months to 18 months)
-reciprocal relationships (18 months on)
stage 1 of attachment?
-0 to 6-8 weeks
stage 2 of attachment?
-attachment in the making
-6-8 weeks to 6-8 months
-more easily consoled by mother
stage 3 of attachment?
-6-8 months to 18 months
-single out mother as secure base
stage 4 of attachment?
-18 months +
-toddler increasingly acts as a partner in relationship
-anticipates that parent will return after separation
what is strange situation experiment?
-ainsworth introduced children and mothers to a room from which the mother then left. upon her return the nature of the child's reaction was studied
-4 types of reactions were observed
what were the 4 reactions to the strange situation experiment?
-secure attachment = child is comforted, crying stops, child explores again
-avoidant attachment = child ignores or turns away
-resistant attachment = baby is upset and remains upset/difficult to console
-disorganised attachment = child seems confused and is unsure of reaction
what were the percentage of children in the 4 reactions to the strange situation experiment?
other factors related to quality of attachment?
-multiple attachment experiences
-parent's own attachment history
-parent's mental illness
consequences of attachment?
-children with secure attachments are more confident and successful with peers
-securely attached children have fewer conflicts with friendships with peers
internal working model?
-expectations derived from early caregiving experiences concerning the availability of attachment figures and one's interactions with those figures
ages and levels of playing?
-around 1 year child engages in parallel play, playing alongside with minimal interaction
-15-18 months, children do similar activities and smile at each other in simple social play
-about 2 years, children engage in cooperative play. play roles and interact
what do girls do when they play?
tend to support girl peers in enabling
what do boys do when they play?
tend to contradict, threaten and compete with boy peers inactivity known as constricting
parental influence on play and consequences?
-parents help and play along
-parents play caching role in diffusing aggression and competition
-children whose parents engage in these activities are often more socially skillful
cooperation and children?
-older children are more likely to cooperate
-children who observe peers cooperating are more likely to imitate them
-children are more likely to cooperate when peers are responsive to their attempts
what is prosocial behaviour?
any behaviour that benefits others
what is altruism?
behaviour that does not benefit oneself but does benefit others, such as helping and sharing
when is empathy more likely?
when a child reaches school age