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Flashcards in Early Cognitive Development Deck (47):
1

what are piaget's basic principles of cognitive development?

-children are active scientists
-children make sense of the world through schemes
-children adapt by refining schemes and adding new owhanes

2

what is assimilation?

fitting new experiences into existing schemes. required to benefit from experience. seeing new breed of dog and knowing it's a dog

3

what is accomodation?

modifying schemes because of new experiences. allows for dealing with completely new data or experiences. seeing a penguin and finding out that all birds don't fly.

4

age and characteristics of sensorimotor stage?

-0-2 yrs
-infants knowledge of world is based on senses and motor skills. by the end of the period, uses mental representation

5

age and characteristics of preoportional thought?

-2-7 yrs
-child learns how to use symbols such as words and numbers to represent aspects of the world but related to the world only though his or her perspective

6

age and characteristics of concrete operational thought?

-7 to early adolescence (11)major gains o
-child understands and applies logical operations to experiences provided they are focused on the here and now

7

age and characteristics of formal operational thought?

-adolescence and beyond(11+)
-adolescent or adult thinks abstractly, deals with hypothetical situations, and speculates about what may be possible

8

major gains of sensorimotor period?

-learns object permanence - object exists even if it's out of view
-use of symbols

9

major gains of pre operational period?

-imagination flourishes. use of symbolic thinking (language)

10

major gains of concrete operational period?

-children learn to understand basic concepts such as number, classification, and conservation

11

major gains of formal operational period?

ethics, politics, social and moral issues become more involving as the adolescent becomes able to take a broader and more theoretical approach to experience.

12

Evaluating Piaget’s Theory: Alternate Explanations of Performance?

-mistakes children make in preoperational thought may be due to language development instead of cognitive development
-poor memory may be a better explanation for object performance errors
-some errors may be due to motor skills rather than cognitive development

13

Evaluating Piaget’s Theory: Consistency in Performance?

-children do not perform consistently in tasks that use same ability
-piaget's theory suggests that these abilities should affect all aspects of performance
-children can develop some skills at right time, earlier, or later
-cultural differences also present

14

mental hardware?

-neural and mental structures enabling the mind to operate

15

mental software?

-mental programs allowing for performance of specific tasks

16

carey's conceptual change theory?

-more emphasis on role of experience in cognitive development
-domain specific compared to domain general knowledge
-incremental cognitive development

17

when is full cognitive potential attained according to carey's theory?

9-8/7 years

18

what is the children's framework for understanding bodily processes before age 6 or 7?

intuitive psychology

19

according to conceptual change theory, what is causality based on?

intentions, desires, and beliefs rather than internal biological processses

20

according to piagetian research, what is preoperational understanding of death?

-reversible
-characterised by being still
-eyes close
-departing

21

according to piagetian research, what is concrete operational understanding of death?

-universality
-irreversibility
-causes by elements outside the body (guns, germs, accidents)

22

according to piagetian research, what is formal operational understanding of death?

-inevitable
-universal
-causality
-cessation of bodily function

23

socio-cultural and emotional factors affecting subcomponents of death?

-exposure to death (universality)
-Protracted Illness/hospitalisation (irreversibility, biological causation)
-Religiosity (? Less understanding of irreversibility)
-Anxiety (less able to face universality)

24

attention?

when sensory information receives additional cognitive processing

25

orienting response?

emotional and physical reactions to unfamiliar stimulus (alerts infant to new or dangerous stimuli)

26

habituation?

lessened reactions to a stimulus after repeated presentations (helps infant ignore biologically insignificant events)

27

memory?

fundamental cognitive broadly involved in academic, emotional, and social developmental skills

28

aspects of memory?

-encoding
-storage
-retrieval
-accessin memories

29

what is encoding (memory)?

tasking information into memory system

30

what is storage (memory)?

holding of information over time

31

what is retrieval (memory)?

accessing information from storage

32

what does accessing memories involve?

recognition and recall

33

what is recognition?

realisation that some physically present object or event has been encountered or experiences before

34

what is recall?

retrieval of some past object or event when it is not present

35

what are phonemes?

the smallest sounds

36

how early can infants distinguish between sounds?

as early as 1 month

37

language development in 0-1 yrs?

babies hear phonemes, begin to coo and babble

38

language development about 1st birthday?

babies begin to talk and to gesture, showing they have begun to use symbols

39

language development in 1-2 yrs?

-vocab expands rapidly (bc of fast mapping)
-reflective and expressive language learning styles appear
-2 word sentences emerge in telegraphic speech
-turn taking is evident in communication

40

language development in 3-5 yrs?

-vocab continues to expand
-grammatical morphemes are added
-children begin to adjust speech to listener but, as listeners often ignore problems in message they receive

41

vocab word count at 2 yrs?

few hundred words

42

vocab word count at 6?

10,000 words

43

fast mapping?

-connecting new words to referents so rapidly that all possible meaning for the new word could not have been considered
-e.g. pointing to cat and saying "cat"from the child's perspective could be referring to its colour, fur or the action of pointing

44

when do 2 and 3 word sentences begin and what are they called?

around 18 months, telegraphic speech e.g. dad come here

45

how do parents assist in learning language?

-speaking to children frequently
-naming objects of children's attention
-using speech that is more grammatically sophisticated
-reading to them
-encouraging watching educational television programs (after 2 years of age) with an emphasis on learning new words, such as sesame street or play school

46

what is vygotskys sociocultural theory?

-the development of language is critical to the development of complex cognitive processes

47

what is social scaffolding in vygotskys sociocultural theory?

children's cognitive development is guided typically by parents, teachers and older siblings